The article analyzes students’ adaptation to the socio-economic conditions, new education systems at university, as well as personal processes related to forming professional competence. The peculiarities of students’ attitudes to university training were examined with the survey conducted among students. The revealed peculiarities of university training were related to characteristics of the students’ personal, psychosocial and professional development. Students’ main activities include their professional training, self-affirmation, intellectual development, moral and physical self-improvement.
The conclusion is made that it is important to ensure the link between general and professional education, socially useful work. The centre of cognitive interest is thinking, so, the problem-based learning, which activates students’ mental activity, has a positive effect on their emotional sphere.
Such intellectual feelings as a feeling of something new, curiosity, surprise contribute to students’ mental activity. If there is a space for manifestations of intelligence, students become active; boredom appears if there is no place for intelligence. Anyone can give an example, when it was difficult to reproduce the content of a listened lecture, a read book or a watched movie, because mental activity was not encouraged.
The peculiarity of cognitive interest lays in an individual’s desire to delve into the essence of cognized objects. From this point of view, a cognitive interest can become a motive for learning, which is the basis of students’ positive attitudes to higher education, to knowledge that, in turn, evokes positive experiences of mental work with a constant desire to obtain deeper knowledge on some learned subjects.
Existing cognitive tasks that require a person to be active, exploratory or creative are important prerequisite for appearance of cognitive interest.
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