PSYCHOLOGICAL JOURNAL <p>'Psychological journal' is a peer-reviewed scientific review, published by<strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""> Association pour la Promotion des Sciences et des Innovations</a></span></strong> &nbsp;in conjunction with&nbsp;<strong><a href="">H. S. Kostyuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine</a></strong> from 2015 year, 12 times a year (from 2019).</p> <p>The scientific review is listed in Special edition of scientific professional publications of Ukraine (Resolution of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine № 409 of 17.03.2020, Annex 1), and it has The Certificate of state registration of the printed source of mass media in Ukraine (КВ &nbsp;№ &nbsp;24063-13903 &nbsp;ПР&nbsp;of 22.07.2019). Attributed ISSN is 2414-0023 for printed journal and 2414-004X for its electronic version.</p> <p>Editorial Board of the Collection consists of at least 42% of international members. The scientific review also publishes the authors with foreign affiliation.</p> <p>Program goals (basic principles) include the development and dissemination of scientific knowledge in the field of psychology. The collection of research papers is published for charitable purposes and intended for free distribution.</p> <p>The scientific review publishes materials, which cover problems of psychological science and practice, promote their wide distribution and overall development of psychological knowledge. The aim of publication is to provide a deeper integration and close cooperation between science and practice, promote the introduction of new scientific and applied research, publish papers of renowned and respected authors and also the papers of young researchers.</p> Інститут психології імені Г. С. Костюка Національної академії педагогічних наук України en-US PSYCHOLOGICAL JOURNAL 2414-0023 <p><strong>Copyright Notice</strong></p> <p>Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link -&nbsp;</p> FEATURES OF EMPATHY AND REFLECTION IN FUTURE PSYCHOLOGISTS <p>The article is devoted to the theoretical analysis of the understanding of the phenomena of empathy and reflection in psychology and the empirical study of the peculiarities of their relationship and correlation with the personal characteristics of students of future psychologists.</p> <p>The understanding of the concept of reflection in psychology is generalized in its interpretation as a metacognitive process, which involves a serious self-analysis of human content of hi\her own inner space: from all cognitive processes; thoughts, experiences, decisions, plans, motives and actions, to his\her place in life and the way of being in it.</p> <p>Empathy is interpreted as an impartial, accurate entry into the inner world of another person, a temporary "dissolution" in the interlocutor, being with him/her to accurately feel his/her experiences and their significance for him/her as he/she experiences it.</p> <p>It is noted that, understanding empathy as a complex integrative formation, it is much more logical to distinguish not individual types of empathy, in fact, dividing it into parts, but consider them part of a holistic phenomenon of empathy, each of which tends to be stronger than others in an appropriate situation. Whereas the highest level of empathy is being with another person, which involves understanding all the nuances of the inner world.</p> <p>It is stated that our theoretical analysis of the problem of empathy and reflection in psychology shows that the holistic theory of empathy, as well as the theory of reflection, are currently at the stage of formation, development and further research as there is complete diversity both in the scientific definition of these concepts and in understanding their structure and components and the selection of their types and determining the levels of their manifestation.</p> <p>It is concluded that the empirical study and analysis of its results confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of a relationship (correlated, statistically significant) between the phenomena of empathy and reflection (often individual components / types of reflection with individual indicators of empathy), as well as each of these processes with dispositional characteristics of the individual (which in particular are expressed in relation to other people). The hidden factors of such connections are also revealed, which allow to make assumptions that the levels of empathy and reflection development in the studied samples are insufficient for the helping profession (psychologist) and are explained by these internal causes / factors.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Halyna Chuyko Yan Chaplak Tetyana Koltunovich ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-13 2022-08-13 8 1 131 148 10.31108/1.2022.8.1.10 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PSYCHOGRAPHS OF POLICE OFFICERS BY MAIN TYPES OF OFFICIAL ACTIVITY IN THE NATIONAL POLICE OF UKRAINE <p>The National Police of Ukraine is in a state of reform and needs to significantly improve its work towards optimizing the system of psychological training of employees and psychological support of their service activities. The presented article is devoted to the results of comparative analysis of psychographs of police professions (operative criminal investigation, pre-trial investigation body, district police officer, patrol police officer, security police officer), developed in the process of large-scale experimental research. Psychograms were created on the basis of a systematic approach based on the use of an optimal set of psychodiagnostic techniques, which made it possible to study the basic individual and personal characteristics of employees of the National Police of Ukraine. It is emphasized that psychological features determine the level of professional suitability of employees for activities according to the criteria of general abilities (verbal and nonverbal intelligence, creativity), personal characteristics (personal characteristics, leading personal tendencies, personal accentuations of character, temperamental features, types of interpersonal relationships) and motivational orientation (features of motivational orientation, self-actualization). The article presents common features that are common to all types of policing, as well as the main differences in the basic criteria and indicators of professional suitability of the individual to work, draws conclusions on improving the psychological selection of police officers and their appointment. It is argued that policing is characterized by a number of invariant features, which are due not only to the specifics of the professional activity, but also their variability depending on the specific type of service. The presented results of the comparative analysis of psychograms of police officers by main types of activity prove the differences in the studied criteria and indicators of professional suitability of the police officer's personality to official activity. This will be useful in the appointment of persons to positions and thus help to increase the effectiveness of the forecast of further success of the police.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vadym Barko Yuliia Boiko-Buzyl Vadym V. Barko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-13 2022-08-13 8 1 149 159 10.31108/1.2022.8.1.11 THE FAMILY INFLUENCE ON THE PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL STATE OF A PRESCHOOL CHILD <p>The current views of scientists on the problem of forming a child’s relationship with others are analyzed in the article, the theoretical and empirical materials on the research problem are substantiated, as well as the impact of family relationships on the psycho-emotional state of a child. On the basis of modern research, the degree of influence of the nature of family relations on the psycho-emotional state of the child has been revealed. The authors consider the emotional component of family relationships as a leading component in determining their constructiveness, describe family relationships that affect the level of anxiety of preschool children.</p> <p>Based on the analysis of theoretical scientific sources, it has been suggested that children’s emotional development depended on the style of family upbringing used by parents in everyday interaction.</p> <p>The program of empirical study of the influence of types of family upbringing on the psycho-emotional development of a preschool child has been developed and implemented.</p> <p>According to the results of experimental research, the main styles of upbringing were clarified, among which authoritarian, hyperopic, and democratic were singled out.</p> <p>It is concluded that family upbringing styles determine the emotional state of a child. Applying the authoritarian style, parents do not take into account the human qualities of a child, the main thing is that he has to achieve the results by any means, including against emotional stability. The style of control makes the child constantly worry about the result of the activity. According to the results of the ascertaining research, an increased level of personal anxiety is observed in the upbringing of preschoolers for whom an authoritarian style is used. The democratic style of upbringing has a positive effect on the psycho-emotional state of a child.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Liana Onufriieva Oksana Chaikovska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-30 2022-01-30 8 1 7 17 10.31108/1.2022.8.1.1 MANAGEMENT OF INTERPERSONAL CONFLICTS IN THE STUDENT ENVIRONMENT: THE RESULTS OF IMPLEMENTING THE TRAINING COURSE <p>The topic of interpersonal conflicts in the student environment is relevant, as evidenced by the observation and the results of the experiment. Conducting surveys and applying psychological tests in the experiment revealed a negative perception of conflicts by students, low and medium levels of emotional intelligence, and the use of avoidance and competition styles of behaviour in a conflict.</p> <p>To achieve the goal of the pilot experiment, a questionnaire developed by the authors was used: "The perception of conflicts by students". The obtained results formed the basis of the training course "Management of interpersonal conflicts in the student environment." The purpose of the formative experiment was to develop, organize and evaluate the effectiveness of the course implementation. The methods of empirical research (survey, testing, observation, active learning methods) were used in the work and methods of mathematical statistics (Student’s t-distribution).</p> <p>The total sample size was 214 university students (aged 18–22). At the formative stage, 40 students were involved (experimental group – 20 students who did the course on managing interpersonal conflicts in the student environment; and a control group – 20 people who were not involved in the course).</p> <p>The design and content of the training course are based on the structure of the conflict management model, which includes the following components: 1) cognitive; 2) emotional; 3) behavioural (Mayer, 2012). A set of psychological methods was selected to study interpersonal conflicts in the student environment at the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural levels. To determine the students’ perception of the conflict, an Express exercise on associations was used for each letter of the word <em>Conflict</em>. The “Know your EQ” test was used to measure the emotional intelligence quotient. In our work, we also used the <a href="">Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI test), </a>a description of behaviour in conflict situations. Measuring the effectiveness of the implementation of the training course "Management of interpersonal conflicts in the student environment" was carried out through the repeated application of methods and the feedback from the course participants.</p> <p>The duration of the course is 70 academic hours: 14 lessons (56 academic hours), an exam – 4 hours, and 10 academic hours of extracurricular work (preparing a project, journaling, etc.). The following interactive techniques were used: the method of incomplete sentences, pair and group work, brainstorming, case studies, role-plays, interviews, miming, retrospective, mini-lectures, reflection sessions.</p> <p>Improvement of the test results at the cognitive, emotional and behavioural levels and positive feedback from the students confirm the effectiveness of the course "Management of interpersonal conflicts in a student environment". Our study, despite its detailed theoretical analysis, valuable results of the experiment, does not reveal all aspects of the problem of interpersonal conflicts in the student environment of higher educational institutions. This work can serve as a basis for further cross-cultural research.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Iryna Soroka Iryna Synhaivska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-30 2022-01-30 8 1 18 31 10.31108/1.2022.8.1.2 GENDER DIFFERENCES IN AXIOPSYCHOLOGICAL DESIGN OF PERSONAL LIFE ACHIEVEMENTS <p>The article is devoted to the study of the factors of the axio-psychological design of the life achievements of the individual and to the identification of gender differences in this phenomenon. According to the results of the factor analysis, the determining features of the axio-psychological design of the life achievements of the individual in the period of early adulthood of the female gender were determined, represented by the following integral psychological characteristics - 10 factors: disposition of self-efficacy, disposition of perfectionism, attribution of responsibility, overcoming obstacles, use of unproductive coping, "futile efforts", combination of androgyny with femininity, benevolence, desire for success, lack of adequate mental age assessment. Instead, representatives of the male gender of early adulthood are distinguished by the following integral psychological characteristics - 10 factors: traits of the male gender in achieving success, overcoming obstacles, helplessness, lack of externally regulated perfectionism, failure, lack of independence as a lack of result, understanding of the situation, reward for what has been achieved, duality of externally regulated perfectionism , affective-conative complex. Gender-based differences between the factors of axio-psychological projection in early adulthood have been revealed: in women, this process is motivated by the disposition of self-efficacy and perfectionist guidelines, and in men by masculinity traits and the desire to overcome obstacles.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Inesa Hulias ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-30 2022-01-30 8 1 32 48 10.31108/1.2022.8.1.3