PSYCHOLOGICAL JOURNAL 2023-02-27T12:21:49+02:00 Klimovskyi Stanislav Open Journal Systems <p>'Psychological journal' is a peer-reviewed scientific review, published by<strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""> Association pour la Promotion des Sciences et des Innovations</a></span></strong> &nbsp;in conjunction with&nbsp;<strong><a href="">H. S. Kostyuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine</a></strong> from 2015 year, 12 times a year (from 2019).</p> <p>The scientific review is listed in Special edition of scientific professional publications of Ukraine (Resolution of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine № 409 of 17.03.2020, Annex 1), and it has The Certificate of state registration of the printed source of mass media in Ukraine (КВ &nbsp;№ &nbsp;24063-13903 &nbsp;ПР&nbsp;of 22.07.2019). Attributed ISSN is 2414-0023 for printed journal and 2414-004X for its electronic version.</p> <p>Editorial Board of the Collection consists of at least 42% of international members. The scientific review also publishes the authors with foreign affiliation.</p> <p>Program goals (basic principles) include the development and dissemination of scientific knowledge in the field of psychology. The collection of research papers is published for charitable purposes and intended for free distribution.</p> <p>The scientific review publishes materials, which cover problems of psychological science and practice, promote their wide distribution and overall development of psychological knowledge. The aim of publication is to provide a deeper integration and close cooperation between science and practice, promote the introduction of new scientific and applied research, publish papers of renowned and respected authors and also the papers of young researchers.</p> THE CONCEPT OF POST-TRAUMATIC GROWTH IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 2023-02-27T12:21:49+02:00 Oksana Rybak <p>The article is devoted to the theoretical analysis of the understanding of the phenomenon of post-traumatic growth in psychology and meta-analysis to combine the results of numerous modern studies. It is noted that, despite the fact that today post-traumatic growth is one of the most researched topics in science, which is of increasing interest, its integral psychological concept is still missing, as well as a general understanding of the concept of post-traumatic growth, its structure, symptoms, stages of development and reasons.</p> <p>It is noted that in psychology, numerous researchers of the phenomenon of post-traumatic growth are inclined to offer their own definitions of it, to single out various symptoms and causes, unwittingly or consciously focusing on the ideas about post-traumatic growth expressed by R. Tedeshi and L. Calhoun.</p> <p>In the article the most relevant scientific approaches to the phenomenon of post-traumatic growth are generalized. The article is also devoted to the disclosure of the meaning of personal growth in personality development, and the highlighting of the peculiarities of the manifestation of post-traumatic growth. The work highlights both the scientific and applied value of post-traumatic growth research. Further prospects for research into this issue are indicated.</p> <p>Having analyzed various approaches to the definition of the phenomenon of post-traumatic growth, we can see that the experience of positive changes occurs with a person as a result of combating trauma or encountering complex life crises, serious traumatic situations and events. In addition, this study emphasizes the importance of post-traumatic growth for a person who has experienced difficult life situations.</p> <p>In the article the relationship between growth and distress is examined, it is established that a certain level of distress is necessary for the process of post-traumatic growth to begin. The importance of disclosing information about a traumatic event has been established, as it leads to reflective thinking. The importance of professional help to support the process of post-traumatic growth is emphasized. It is explained how forms of productive and unproductive coping correlate with high levels of posttraumatic growth. Also it is described how post-traumatic growth manifests itself during different time periods. The main empirical instruments of post-traumatic growth research is outlined.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Oksana Rybak SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE OF EXPRESSED EMOTION TOWARDS SERVICE USERS WITH CHRONIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES 2023-02-22T08:17:53+02:00 Tetiana Pastryk <p>The study aims to expand the understanding of perceived relatives’ expressed emotion (EE) according to four subscales: lack of support, irritability, criticism and emotional over-involvement towards service users with chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Considering the aim of the study there is a key research question: Are there any differences in the service users’ subjective experience of EE (perceived EE) and its subscales (lack of support, irritability, criticism and emotional over-involvement) according to demographic characteristics, namely gender, marital status and professional status? The study sample includes 118 service users who were undergoing inpatient treatment in the gastroenterology and proctology departments of the "Volyn Regional Clinical Hospital". The study applies methods of theoretical analysis and the Level of Perceived EE (pLEE) Scale. The results of the study indicate that there are no significant differences in pLEE according to professional status. Employed persons have&nbsp; the same indicies of perceived&nbsp; lack of support, irritability, criticism and emotional over-involvement with unemployed service users. Married individuals with chronic gastrointestinal diseases have lower indices of emotional over-involvement and higher indices of perceived lack of support nad iratbility compared to single service users at the level p&lt;0.01. Women experience higher lack of support compared to men at the level p&lt;0.05. The study has an important practical implication, namely developing a psychoeducational program for relatives and healthcare staff of service users with chronic gastrointestinal diseases. It will lead to enhancing the illness-related quality of life in service users.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-05-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tetiana Pastryk FEATURES OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PROTECTION OF PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISTIC DISORDERS 2023-02-22T07:59:13+02:00 Oleksandr Storozhuk <p>The article analyzes the features of psychological defenses of parents of children with autistic disorders. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are genetic in nature and are a congenital disorder of brain neuron development. First of all, problems related to autism concern family members of children affected by this disease. For the most part, the family of an autistic child falls into a situation of isolation, which is accompanied by a feeling of loneliness. The models of helping parents of children with autism are now extremely diverse. One of these models is the psychological model of helping parents. It is the most important. Psychological protection is one of the most controversial properties in the personality structure, as it simultaneously contributes to both the stabilization of the personality and its disorganization. Defense theories view human individuals as motivated to accumulate and maintain mental resources for the purposes of resisting anxiety, strengthening one's composure, and normal functioning without falling into intrapsychic chaos.</p> <p>To determine the mechanisms of psychological protection of parents of children with autistic disorders, we used the method of measuring psychological protection (Pylyugina, &amp; Suleymanov, 2020), with the help of which we determined the following mechanisms of psychological protection of parents of psychotic, neurotic, infantile, and adaptive genesis. The empirical study was conducted on the basis of the Development Clinic Medical Center (Kyiv) during 2019-2021. Two groups of parents who have children with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. The total number of researched persons is 125. The age range of the studied parents is 25-46 years. The age of children is from 2 to 6 years.</p> <p>According to the results of the comparison of the reliability of differences according to independent and dependent variables, it was established that the mechanism of psychological protection according to the type of dissociation reliably prevails in mothers. It has been established that the mechanisms of psychological protection of infantile genesis are more characteristic of mothers, than fathers, which function, as a rule, at the level of emotions and are caused by emotional infantilism. It was established that mothers reliably differ in the type of compulsive behavior, passive aggression, defense mechanism, and the type of denial. Accordingly, the investigated mothers may be characterized by obsessive behavior that periodically arises and is realized in specific behavioral rituals or mental acts.</p> <p>So, the protective profile of mothers is mainly characterized by dissociation, hypochondria, isolation, displacement, passive aggression, denial, reactive formations, compensation, assumption, prediction, while fathers ‑ by rationalization, sublimation, mechanisms of adaptive genesis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-05-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Oleksandr Storozhuk SUBJECTIVE FEELING OF LONELINESS OF STUDENTS DURING DISTANCE EDUCATION 2023-02-22T07:40:13+02:00 Oksana Rybak Olga Vasylkivska <p>The article is dedicated to the generalization of the most relevant scientific approaches to the study of the concept of loneliness, the subjective feeling of loneliness, the disclosure of the meaning and influence of the experience of loneliness in the development of personality. The levels of the subjective feeling of loneliness are empirically identified and described. The article highlights both the scientific and applied significance of research of the subjective feeling of loneliness of students during distance learning. Further prospects for research on this issue are indicated.</p> <p>Loneliness is a complicated socio-psychological phenomenon. Being a personal experience, it is difficult to describe, since its manifestations are always subjective. The ambivalence of loneliness lies in its ambiguous impact on a person - it is often perceived by people as a difficult and painful experience, but it cannot be denied that for personality development it is necessary to be alone from time to time.</p> <p>In the course of the study, an analysis of the phenomenon of loneliness as a socio-psychological phenomenon was carried out. The understanding of this phenomenon from the point of view of various researchers was considered, a number of definitions of the concept of loneliness were given. The analysis of the differences between such concepts as loneliness, isolation and seclusion was carried out and the classifications of types of loneliness were given. A theoretical analysis of such a concept as achievement motivation was also conducted, and the concept of affiliation motivation was briefly analyzed.</p> <p>In the world, the problem of loneliness of students during distance learning is particularly relevant. The development of technology has allowed a person to be in constant contact with a huge amount of information, to contact other people via Internet. But such limitless possibilities have a negative side. Dependence on information, characteristic of a modern person, distances it, plunging into its continuous consumption, depriving time of solitude, contact with one's feelings and thoughts.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-05-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Oksana Rybak, Olga Vasylkivska BURNOUT, ENGAGEMENT AND PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIOR OF BUSINESS MANAGERS 2023-02-21T16:18:01+02:00 Julia Palovski <p>The article is devoted to the analysis of the leading symptoms of burnout, caused by the specifics of managerial activity in the business environment. A survey of 149 managers and owners of commercial organizations was conducted using the "Professional burnout" method, the Utrecht Scale of Work Engagement, and the "Work-related Behavior and Experiences" questionnaire. The obtained results reveal the prevalence and internal structure of burnout of business managers in Ukraine, which is characterized by manifestations of exhaustion and depersonalisation along with high self-esteem of personal achievements and involvement in work. Among the manifestations of burnout, signs of exhaustion turned out to be the most common: almost half of managers constantly or often experience a state of exhaustion of emotional, motivational, and physical resources.</p> <p>Depersonalisation of managers is not a natural consequence of exhaustion and not the reason for the reduction of personal achievements; it is accompanied by energy, initiative, absorption in activity. We observed many "highly cynical" respondents with the highest scores on the scales of professional efficiency and involvement in work. The intercorrelations of the burnout scales contradict the theoretical causal model: there is no significant relationship between the indicators of exhaustion and depersonalization, while there is a strong direct correlation of the scales of depersonalization and professional effectiveness. These data expand knowledge about the professionally important qualities of managers and clarify the three-component theoretical model of burnout. A well-founded view of professional cynicism as a protective strategy of self-preservation, which is related to the manifestations of burnout, but is not an unambiguously negative symptom. Depersonalisation contributes to the saving of internal resources of managers at a high level of energy costs and involvement in activities. The optimal level of psychological distancing from work and some objectification of employees ensures the effective performance of managerial functions in a business environment. This is a kind of personal adaptation to professional challenges, which has both favorable and destructive sides.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-05-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Julia Palovski