Gender identity is the most significant of all the social and role identities of an individual, related to his/her general psychological development; it is a mental health indicator, a condition of personality holisms. Gender identity significantly influences the formation and structuring of personal and social-psychological self-determination and is an integral and important component of an individual’s Self-concept.
The study aim was to analyze the results of the empirical research (n = 1340) on the gender identity structure and content and to determine the features of gender-role differentiation. Gender identity is a complex qualitative phenomenon, so the projective method of unfinished sentences “I am a man / woman” was used at the research. This method allowed us to determine: the substantive characteristics of the gender component of an individual’s self-concept; gender norms, roles and stereotypes in social, professional, family, sexual fields, in perception of external and internal gender characteristics; gender-role differentiation of men and women.
Analysis of the research results showed that the gender component of self-concepts characteristic for women and men is filled with personal characteristics, stereotypical perceptions of masculine and feminine, norms of gender-typical behaviour (mainly at interactions with an opposite gender, the roles of a mother and a father, emotional (female) and instrumental (male) functions) at personal and interpersonal levels. The obtained results reflect current gender norms and stereotypes in the social, professional, family, sexual spheres, in the perception of external and internal gendered personal characteristics. The research results confirm the existing gender-role differentiations: in addition to answers identical for men and women (for example, related to family, children, care of loved ones), men more often than women identify themselves (as a man) with success, material status, earnings, jobs, goal achievement. Women identify themselves more often with feelings (love, tenderness), attitudes (respect) to other people, they value themselves as a woman the first and foremost, and only after as a personality. Therefore, women’s gender identity is of a relational type, and men’s gender identity is of an instrumental type and less emotional and communicative.
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