PDF 25-34 (Українська)


suicidal thinking
suicidal ideation
suicidal behaviour
COVID-19 pandemic

How to Cite



 Suicidal thinking is the basis for the development of other forms and levels of suicidal behaviour. According to the available research, the nature and level of suicidal ideation largely depend on situational factors. Changes and limitations related to the COVID-19 pandemic can be viewed as a set of situational factors that significantly contribute to increased intensity of suicidal behaviour in general and suicidal thinking in particular. The study involved 87 students from Ukraine, Germany, France and Finland; the average age was 22.5 years. They were all quarantined during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Scale for Suicide Ideation, Beck et al. 1979, the Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation Inventory, Osman et al., 1998, Hopelessness Scale, Beck et al., 1974, NEO PI, Costa, & McCrae, 1992 were used.

Among the identified features of suicidal thinking, we should note that the parameters of suicidal thinking are related to some personal factors, as well as suicidal thinking’s signs manifested in different degrees depending on countries of residence, that probably reflects the cultural characteristics of experienced challenges associated with threats to health and life, restrictions, isolation and uncertainty. Thus, German students, in comparison with Ukrainian ones, showed higher hopelessness. The level of negative suicidal thinking, in comparison with Ukrainian students, was higher among Finnish and French students. French and Finnish students had different values for the parameters of positive and negative suicidal thinking. French students showed higher positive thinking; Finnish students, on the contrary, had higher negative suicidal thinking, and the level of these parameters in the group of Finnish students stands out strongly against the background of all groups in the sample. The following personal traits played the greatest role in the development of suicidal thinking manifestations: extraversion, conscientiousness (they decrease the probability of suicidal thinking development) and neuroticism (increases its probability) for Ukrainian students; friendly sociability (decreases its probability) and neuroticism (increases its probability) for Finnish students; extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness (decrease its probability) for French students.
PDF 25-34 (Українська)


Anestis, M. D., Soberay, K. A., Gutierrez, P. M., Hernández, T. D., & Joiner, T. E. (2014). Reconsidering the Link Between Impulsivity and Suicidal Behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, vol. 18, no 4, 366-386. doi:10.1177/1088868314535988.
Aradilla-Herrero, A., Tomás-Sábado, J., & Gómez-Benito, J. (2014). Associations between emotional intelligence, depression and suicide risk in nursing students. Nurse Education Today, vol. 34, no 4, 520-525. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2013.07.001.
Bacherikov, A. M., Kuzminov, V. N., Tkachenko, T. V. (2012). Mekhanizmy formuvannia suitsydalnoi povedinky u khvorykh na zalezhnist vid alkogoliu [Mehanisms of suicidal behavior forming in patients with alcohol dependence]. Ukrainskyi visnyk psykhonevrologii – Ukrainian Bulletin of Psychoneurology, vol. 20, no 3 (72), 161-162. [in Ukrainian].
Burlaka, V. Suicidal Behaviors Among Ukrainian College Students: the Role of Subtance Use, Religion, and Depression / Burlaka V., Hong J.S., Serdiuk O., Krupelnytska L., Paschenko S., Darvishov N., Churakova Iu. // International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (2020).
Czeisler, M., Lane, R. I., Petrosky, E., Wiley, J. F., Christensen, A., Njai,  R., Weaver, M. D., et al. (2020) Mental Health, Substance Use, and Suicidal Ideation During the COVID-19 Pandemic — United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep., 69 (32), 1049–1057. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6932a1
Dervic, K., Oquendo, M. A., Grunebaum, M. F., Ellis, S., Burke, A. K. & Mann, J. J. (2004). Religious Affiliation and Suicide Attempt. The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.161, no12, 2303-2308.
Fan, A. P., Kosik, R. O., Mandell, G. A., Tran, D. T., Cheng, H. M., Chen,  C. H., …& Chiu, A. W. (2012). Suicidal ideation in medical students: who is at risk? Ann Acad Med Singapore, vol. 41, no 9, 377-382.
Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Swain-Campbell, N. (2002). Cannabis use and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence and young adulthood. Addiction, vol. 97, no 9, 1123-1135. doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.2002.00103.x. 
Gradus, J. L., Qin, P., Lincoln, A. K., Miller, M., Lawler, E., Sorensen,  H.  T., & Lash, T. L. (2010). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Completed Suicide. American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 171, no 6, 721-727. doi:10.1093/aje/kwp456. 
Hemmingsson, T., & Kriebel, D. (2003). Smoking at age 18-20 and suicide during 26 years of follow-up – how can the association be explained? International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 32, no 6, 1000-1004. doi:10.1093/ije/dyg203. 
Holmogorova, A. B., Garanian, N. G., Gorshkova, D. A., & Melnik, N. A. (2009). Suitsidalnoie povedeniie v studencheskoi populiatsii [Suicidal Behavior in the Student Population]. Kulturno-istoricheskaia psikhologiia - Cultural-Historical Psychology, vol.5, no 3, 101-110. [in Russian].
Jakupcak, M., Cook, J., Imel, Z., Fontana, A., Rosenheck, R., & McFall,  M. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder as a risk factor for suicidal ideation in Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 22, no 4, 303-306. doi:10.1002/jts.20423. 
Killgore, W.D.S., Cloonan, S. Taylor, A. C., Allbright, M. C., Dailey,  N.  S. (2020). Trends in suicidal ideation over the first three months of COVID-19 lockdowns. Psychiatry Research, vol. 293. doi:
Klonsky, E., May, A., & Saffer, B. (2016). Suicide, Suicide Attempts, and Suicidal Ideation. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. vol.12, no 1, 307-330. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-021815-093204.
Medvedeva, T. I., Vorontsova, O. Yu., Kazmina, O. Yu., & Zinchenko,  O. O. (2016). Implitsitnyie assotsiatsii so “smertiu” i suitsidalnyi risk [Implicit associations with “death” and suicidal risk]. Pro-ceedings of the Diagnostika v meditsinskoi (klinicheskoi) psikhologii: traditsii i perspektivy (k 105-letiiu S.Ya. Rubinshtein). Materialy nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiiem – Diagnostics in medical (clinical) psychology: traditions and perspectives (to the 105th anniversary of S.Ya. Rubinstein). Scientific-practical Conference with international participation proceedings (eds. Zvereva N.V., Roshchina I.V.), Moscow: OOO "Sam Poligrafist", 82-95. [in Russian].
 Melissa‐Halikiopoulou, C., Tsiga, E., Khachatryan, R., & Papazisis, G. (2011). Suicidality and depressive symptoms among nursing students in northern Greece. Health Science Journal, vol. 5, no 2, 90-97.
O’Connor, R. C. & Nock, M. K. (2014). The psychology of suicidal behaviour. Lancet Psychiatry, vol.1, no 1, 73-85. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(14)70222-6.
O’Reilly, D., & Rosato, M. (2015). Religion and the risk of suicide: longitudinal study of over 1 million people. British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 206, no 6, 466-470.doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.128694. 
Oquendo, M. A., Waternaux, C., Brodsky, B., Parsons, B., Haas, G. L., Malone, K. M., et al. (2000). Suicidal behavior in bipolar mood disorder: clinical characteristics of attempters and nonattempters. Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 59, no 2, 107-117. doi:10.1016/s0165-0327(99)00129-9.
Pedersen, W. (2008). Does cannabis use lead to depression and suicidal behaviours? A population-based longitudinal study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 118, no 5, 395-403. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2008.01259.x. 
Piliagina, G. Ya., & Chumak, S. A. (2014). Predictory formirovaniia i retsydivirovaniia samorazrushaiushchego povedeniia [Predicative factors of recurrence process of the self-destructive behavior]. Suitsidologiia – Suicidology, vol. 5, no 2(15), 3-19. [in Russian].
Pompili, M., Sher, L., Serafini, G., Forte, A., Innamorati, M., Dominici,  G., … Girardi, P. (2013). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Suicide Risk Among Veterans. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 201, no 9, 802-812. doi:10.1097/nmd.0b013e3182a21458.
Rakhimkulova, A. S. (2016). Fenomen riskovogo povedeniia podrostkov [The phenomenon of adolescent risk behavior: an attempt at a conceptual description (review)]. Medychna psykhologiia – Medical psychology, vol. 11, no 3, 37-43.
Roy, A. (2010). Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, vol. 40, no 4, 416-420. doi:10.1521/suli.2010.40.4.416. 
Shadrina, I. V., Dedova, K. N. (2011). Faktory riska suitsidalnogo povedeniia u bolnykh s posttravmaticheskim stressovym rasstroistvom (uchastnikov sovremennykh lokalnykh voin) [Risk factors suicidal behavior in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (members modern local wars)]. Suitsidologiia – Suicidology, no 3, 46-48. [in Russian].
Sher, L. (2020) The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide rates, QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, vol. 113, no 10, 707–712.
Van Ours, J. C., Williams, J., Fergusson, D., & Horwood, L.J. (2013). Cannabis use and suicidal ideation. Journal of Health Economics, vol. 32, no 3, 524-537. doi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2013.02.002.
VanderWeele, T. J., Li, S., Tsai, A.C., & Kawachi, I. (2016). Association Between Religious Service Attendance and Lower Suicide Rates Among US Women. JAMA Psychiatry, vol. 73, no 8, 845-851. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.1243. 
WHO (2019). Suicide. Available at:
World Population Review (2020). Suicide Rate by Country 2020 Available at:

Copyright Notice

Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link -