The study purpose was to analyze Francis Galton’s works in order to determine the methodology that should be used to study creativity and its heredity. The article author clarified the definitions of the following concepts: “ability”, “giftedness”, “talent” and also examined the relations between the theories on heredity and eugenics, formulated by Galton.
Via the performed theoretical analysis, we have found that Francis Galton, studying the heredity of talent, erroneously hypothesised that a high reputation was a true measure of high abilities. In his works, Galton did not use a single term to define “talent” or “giftedness”. Also, no explanation was given for criteria describing subjects as: “having high abilities” or “high reputation”. Also, Galton did not develop clear criteria determining whether certain relatives of famous people were also outstanding or talented.
Accordingly, the article author proposes her own approach defining an outstanding individual that excludes from consideration on creativity people who are famous, but, at the same time, are not highly talented.
Francis Galton did not explain exactly what abilities had people of different occupations; he was not able to describe specific signs of talent in a particular area. Galton divided talented individuals into classes, but the basis for such division did not meet any reasonable criterion. He also compared talents of students studied at different classes but did not explain rules determining talent levels.
Because of these and other facts, Francis Galton’ research results were unreliable. Omissions were also made in the study on talent heredity, which, in turn, led to incorrectly formulated goals for such an approach as “Eugenics”.
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