The article presents the theoretical and empirical study of the structure of tolerance to stress. The system of tolerance to stress was the study object. The study subject was the psychological patterns of an individual’s tolerance to stress and its development. The author describes the mechanisms of self-regulation at stress in the system “individual – personality – individuality - over-personality”. The following techniques were used for the empirical study: “Mini-mult” test of V.P. Zaitseva to identify distressing personal traits; H. J. Eysenck’s test to determine types of temperament; E.Heim’s technique examining the adaptability of coping strategies used by people; patrol police officer were examined with the author’s questionnaire “Examination of personal tolerance to stress”.
The author identified the action mechanisms for each component of tolerance to stress: psychophysiological, emotional, cognitive and volitional. Correlations were determined between the components of the studied system. Thus, the psychophysiological component is the basis for development of other components of tolerance to stress. Correlations among an individual’s temperament, character, coping strategies and free will were demonstrated in the theoretical and empirical research. The determined components of tolerance to stress are interdependent, they complemented each other in an integrated system: one is possible due to others. Psychophysiological self-regulation was possible due to developed regulative capabilities of the autonomic nervous system. The emotional component of stress tolerance correlated with physiological and socio-cultural needs that motivated an individual to avoid or overcome obstacles. The emotional component can be regulated due to the feedback mechanism. Such feedback makes a system stronger, pushes it toward changes corresponding to already existing direction of an individual’s movement aimed to overcome difference between the actual and desired systemic states. The balanced feedback pulls into the opposite direction to restore a lost balance. It stabilizes the system and prevents new changes. The cognitive component in the structure of stress tolerance had its mechanisms of cognitive regulation: assimilation and dissimilation, encouraging appearance of new personal traits. Self-regulation as a stress overcoming act is possible due to an individual’s volitional qualities. The volitional mechanisms for stress tolerance are: persistence and meaningfulness, objectivity and integrity.
The further research will include development of a program for stress tolerance improvement.
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