The article considers the styles of adults’ attachment as a significant factor for resilience development at specialists in helping professions. The main article goal is to analyze the results of the theoretical and empirical study on correlations between styles of helping profession specialists’ early childhood attachment and their resilience. The article presents the theoretical and empirical analysis of the phenomenon of resilience and the attachment theory. The phenomenon itself is analyzed, various approaches and modern points of view on adults’ attachment styles are described, the possibilities of their experimental determination are considered. The article presents the performed experimental study of specialists in helping professions with the analysis of the data on their resilience in general, its correlations with such unreliable types of attachment as avoidance and anxiety; the author’s own experience in psychotherapy.
The following conclusions were drawn from the performed theoretical review: 1) many factors can influence resilience formation and maintenance, including the experience of early parent-child relationships; 2) the reliable attachment, formed during infancy, plays an important role in development of a child’s system of effective mental protection, stimulates appearance and improvement of prosocial behaviour that form the basis of resilience at adulthood, and also affects an individual’s psychological tolerance to mental traumas, reduces their psychosomatic and mental symptoms; 3) the emotional connection between two adults is symmetrical, so that, partners are a source of a feeling of comfort and security for each other.
The following conclusions were drawn from our experimental study conducted at 2017–2019: 1) specialists in helping professions generally have an average resilience with a tendency to it increasing; 2) there are correlations between the levels of resilience and the styles of attachment: the higher the indicators of unreliable attachment, the lower the indicators of resilience; 3) there is a correlative tendency between the indicators of resilience and the respondents’ age: the older the specialists are, the lower their resilience indicators are and the higher the indicators of the anxiety attachment style; 4) an inverse statistically significant correlations were determined between the level of resilience and the specialists’ personal experience (measures in worked hours): the fewer hours of own experience, the lower resilience.
Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991) Attachments styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 61(2), 226-244
Bolton, K. (2013) The development and validation of the resilience protective factors inventory: a confirmatory factor analysis. Arlington: University of Texas at Arlington.
Bowlby, J. (1980) Attachment and loss: Loss: Sadness and depression. NY: Basic books. V. 3
Brennan, K.A., Clark, C. L., Shaver, P.R. (1988) Self-report measurement of adult romantic attachment: An integrative overview. Attachment theory and close relationships. J. A. Simpson, W. S. Rholes (Eds). N-Y: Gilford Press, 46-76.
Brish, H.К. (2012) Attachment disorders from theory to therapy [Rozlady pryviazanosti vid teorii do terapii]. Lviv: Prostir-M. [in Ukrainian]
Cassidy, J., & Shaver, P. (2008) Handbook of attachment: theory, research and clinical implications. N-Y.: Gilford Press.
Connor, K.M., & Davidson, J. R. (2003) Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Depression and Anxiety, V.18, 76-98
Davidson, J., Payne, V., Connor, K. (2005) Trauma, resilience, and saliostasis: Effects of treatment in post-traumatic stress disorder. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 20, 43-48.
Fraley, R. C., Waller, N.G., Brennan, K. A. (2000) An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365
Kalmykova, E. S. (2012) Opyty issledovania lichnoy istorii: Nauchno-psychologicheskiy i rlinicheskiy podhody [Experiments of personal history research: scientific, psychological and clinical approaches]. Мoskow: Kogito- centr. [in Russian]
Lazos, G. P. (2017) Osoblyvosti emotsiynyh staniv volonteriv – psychologiv/psychoterapevtiv u stosynkah z postrazhdalymy [Specific of emotional states of volunteers - psychologists / psychotherapists in relations with victims]. Osoblyvosti stosunkiv “psychoterapevt – client”u suchasnomu sotsiokulturnomu seredovyschi: monografia - Features of the relationship "psychotherapist - client" in the modern socio-cultural environment: Monograph. Z. G. Kisarchuk (Eds.). Кyiv.: Vydavnichiy dim “Slovo”, 154 – 176 [in Ukrainian]
Lazos, G. P. (2018) Resilientnist: contseptualizatsia poniat, oglyad sychasnych doslidzhen [Resilience: Conceptualization of terms, review of modern researches]. Aktualni problem psychologii. T.III: Konsultatyvna psychologia ta psychoterapia — Actuals problems of Psychology. — V. ІІІ : Counselling Psychology and Psychotherapy. Maksymenko S. D. (Eds). Кyiv, Institute G. S. Kostuika NАPN Ukraine. Issue. 14. 26-64 [in Ukrainian]
Luthar, S.S. (2000) The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work / S.S. Luthar, D. Cicchetti, B. Becker. Child development, 71, 543-562
Main, M., Kaplan, N., Cassidy, J. (1985) Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: a move to the level of representation. Growing points of attachment theory and research. I. Bretherton, E. Waters (Eds), 50 (1-2, Serial. #209), 66-104
Masten, A. (2014) Ordinary magic: resilience in development. New York: The Guilford press.
Maunder, R. G., & Hunter, J. J. (2001) Attachment and psychosomatic medicine: Developmental contributions to stress and disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 556-567.
Neman, R. (2005) APA’s resilience initiative. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36, 227.
Nemeth, D., & Olivier, T. (2018) Innovative approaches to individual and community resilience: from theory to practice. N-Y: Academic Press.
Richardson, G. (2002) The metatheory of resilience and resiliency. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 58 (3), 307-321. – DOI 10.1002 / jclp. 20020
Rutter, M. (1990). Psychosocial resilience and protective. Risk and Protective Factors in the Development of Psychopathology. J. Rolf, A.S. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. H, Neuchterlein, & S. Weintraub (Eds.) New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 181-214.
Sabelnikova, N. V. (2015) Oprosnik priviazanosty k blizkim ludiam [Attachment to close people questionnaire. Psychologicheskiy zhurnal – Journal of Psychology, 36 (4)., 84 - 97 [in Russian]
Sharf, D., & Sharf, J. (2009) Osnovy teorii obectnyh otnosheniy [Вasics of object-relations theory]. Мoskow: Cogito-centr [in Russian]
Shaver, P.R., Hazan, C., Bradshaw, D. (1988) Love as attachment: The integration of three behavioural systems. The Psychology of Love. R.J. Sternberg, M. Barnes (Eds). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 68–99.
Southwick, S., & Charney, D. (2016) Resilience. The Science of Mastering Life`s Greatest Challenges. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, R.E., Marshall, T., Mann, A. (2012) Insecure Attachment and Frequent Attendance in Primary care: A longitudinal Cohort study of medically unexplained symptom presentations in ten UK General Practices. Psychological Medicine, 42 (4), 855-864.
Tedeschi, R.G., & Calhoun, L.G. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychological Inquiry. 15, 1-18.
Werner, E., & Smith, R. (1992) Overcoming the odds: high risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/