Introduction. The studies on COVID-19 pandemic psychological effects on populations and reports with experience of provided psychological support and mental health care in different countries (especially China, Italy) have already been published since the pandemic outbreak. The observed psychological phenomena and practical experience may become useful for development of psychological support strategies in the pandemic situation in Ukraine.
Purpose. The aim of this study was to review, analyze and systematize the models and methods of psychological support during the COVID-19 pandemic that were published in foreign psychological journals and official health care guides.
Results. Three types of the models and methods were identified at the reviewed publications and systematized accordingly: (1) general psychological support models and strategies used in a whole state, a certain system (e.g. health care or mental health care systems) or a certain institution; (2) specific methods of psychological support (new or modified to pandemic conditions); (3) psychological recommendations for self-support and support of close others, including family members and children.
Conclusions. The performed analysis of the mentioned above models, methods and recommendations showed several general reference points, on which the psychological support was based: (1) “accessibility”: (a) remote assistance through mobile applications or phones proposed by psychologists, psychiatrists and volunteers from certain organizations, including healthcare institutions, and (b) free of cost or affordable prices; (2) “continuity”: maximum opportunities to continue psychological support or mental health care was provided for those who was already in the process; (3) “focus”: new requests were seen as requiring urgent interventions with the focus on current feelings, difficulties and possible solutions, (4) “interdisciplinary”: an accent on joint work of various departments and public services allowing medical staff to refer patients to a psychologist, and a psychologist could refer clients to a psychiatrist or to the social service; (5) “education”: the emphasis on psychological education and recommendations of specific actions, solutions, ways to cope that can be used independently during the pandemic. These 5 reference points can be useful for development of the model of psychological support during the COVID-19 outbreak in Ukraine.
Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet. doi:10.1016/ S0140-6736(20)30460-8
Chen, Q., Liang, M., Li, Y., Guo, J., Fei, D., Wang, L., … Zhang, Z. (2020). Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Psychiatry. doi:10.1016/s2215-0366(20)30078-x
Coronavirus and Emerging Infectious Disease Outbreaks Response. Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Uniformed Services University, Date of access March, 25, 2020. Available at https://www.cstsonline.org/resources/resource-master-list/coronavirus-and-emerging-infectious-disease-outbreaks-response
Dai, Y., Hu, G., Xiong, H., Qiu, H., & Yuan, X. (2020). Psychological impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on healthcare workers in China. medRxiv. doi:10.1101/2020.03.03.20030874
David, H. (2020) On-line treatment of gifted child in corona time. Date of access April, 04, 2020. Available at https://giftedassessmentinsights.com/2020/04/02/on-line-treatment-of-gifted-children/
Duan, L., & Zhu, G. (2020). Psychological interventions for people affected by the COVID-19 epidemic. The Lancet Psychiatry. doi:10.1016/s2215-0366(20)30073-0
Huang, Y., & Zhao, N. (2020). Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 epidemic in China: a web-based cross-sectional survey. medRxiv. doi: 10.1101/2020.02.19.20025395
Liebrenz M., Bhugra D., Buadze A. & Schleifer R. (2020), Caring for persons in detention suffering with mental illness during the Covid-19 outbreak. Forensic Science International: Mind and Law, doi:10.1016/j.fsiml.2020.100013
Liu, S., Yang, L., Zhang, C., Xiang, Y.-T., Liu, Z., Hu, S., & Zhang, B. (2020). Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Psychiatry. doi:10.1016/s2215-0366(20)30077-8
Morganstien, J. (2020) Coronavirus and Mental Health: Taking Care of Ourselves During Infectious Disease Outbreaks. American Psychiatry Association Blog. Date of access March, 17, 2020. Available at https://www.psychiatry.org/news-room/apa-blogs/apa-blog/2020/02/coronavirus-and-mental-health-taking-care-of-ourselves-during-infectious-disease-outbreaks
Park, S. C., & Park, Y. C. (2020). Mental Health Care Measures in Response to the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak in Korea. Psychiatry Investigation, 17(2), 85. doi: 10.30773/pi.2020.0058
Pisano, L., Cerniglia L. (2020) «Trauma pandemia». Gli effetti psicologici del coronavirus sulla vita dei bambini di eta compresa tra i 4 e i 10 anni: gli esiti della ricerca. Report su un’indagine esplorativa. IFOS, 2020. 60 p.
Qiu J., Shen B., Zhao M., et al. (2020) A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry; 33: e100213. doi:10.1136/ gpsych-2020-100213
Remote Psychological First Aid during the COVID-19 outbreak Interim guidance. Date of access March, 28, 2020. Available at https://pscentre.org/?resource=remote-psychological-first-aid-during-the-covid-19-outbreak-interim-guidance-march-2020
Shigemura, J., Ursano, R. J., Morganstein, J. C., Kurosawa, M., & Benedek, D. M. (2020). Public responses to the novel 2019 coronavirus (2019‐nCoV) in Japan: mental health consequences and target populations. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. doi: 10.1111/pcn.12988
Recomendaciones psicológicas para afrontar la pandemia COVID-19. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Date of access April, 04, 2020. Available at https://www.academia.edu/42406940/RECOMENDACIONES_PSICOL%C3%93GICAS_PARA_AFRONTAR_LA_PANDEMIA
Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1729. doi:10.3390/ijerph17051729
World Health Organization. (2020). Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the COVID-19 outbreak, 18 March 2020 (No. WHO/2019-nCoV/MentalHealth/2020.1).
Xiang Y.-T., Yang Y., Li W., et al. (2020) Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. Lancet Psychiatry. doi:10.1016/ S2215-0366(20)30046-8
Xiao, C. (2020). A Novel Approach of Consultation on 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)-Related Psychological and Mental Problems: Structured Letter Therapy. Psychiatry Investigation, 17(2), 175. doi: 10.30773/pi.2020.0047
Zhang, J., Wu, W., Zhao, X., & Zhang, W. (2020). Recommended psychological crisis intervention response to the 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak in China: a model of West China Hospital. Precision Clinical Medicine. doi:10.1093/pcmedi/pbaa006
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/