In the article a theoretical and methodological analysis of the problem of thinking in psychological science is given, the age and individual psychological characteristics of preschool children is presented. The accumulated theoretical and practical experience is considered in the following sequence: the classification of children mental development, age ontogenesis of thinking characteristics, individual psychological characteristics of children who have certain possibilities of interaction with different types of thinking. The purpose of the article is to analyze the dynamics of thinking development in preschool age. Research methods - theoretical analysis of domestic and foreign scientific sources, which allowed to identify, summarize and organize the materials on the research problem. The results of the study of age characteristics of preschool children showed that at all stages of development of thinking the key importance is given to its ontogenesis. Many researchers have dealt with the development of children's thinking, but currently the only periodization of the age of mental development of the child does not exist. The most famous classifications of speech ontogenesis are presented by J. Piage and P. Y. Galperin. The age ontogenesis of thinking of a child from the sensorimotor intelligence of a newborn to the stage of operational thinking of a preschooler is considered, which attracts special attention of psychologists, because it is during this period that children must acquire the skills to operate visual images, to represent objects in different spatial positions, to form an internal plan of action of thinking. It is shown that children's intelligence from early childhood to senior preschool age operates on the basis of the principle of consistency and, if necessary, at the same time included in all types and levels of thinking: visual-effective, visual-figurative, visual-schematic and verbal-logical. The phenomenon of "syncretism" is considered the dynamics of thinking development in preschool age is systematized and presented, individual psychological features of children such as curiosity, activity, criticality in the context of thinking are analyzed. Conclusions: the expediency of studying the relationship between the development of visual-effective and visual-imaginative thinking with an impressive (internal) and expressive (external) speech of a child of preschool age.
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