Ajibola Abdulrahamon Ishola
University of Ibadan
Olufunmilayo Adedayo
Adeyemi College of education
PDF 23-35


workplace violence
dispositional traits

How to Cite



Perceived workplace violence against nurses has become a major concern to scholars, occupational safety and health administrators. However, dispositional factors in nurses’ perception of workplace violence in Nigeria have not been sufficiently explored. This study therefore, examined dispositional factors predicting workplace violence among nurses in Ondo and Osun State, Nigeria.

The study adopted the cross-sectional study across the study setting; four hundred and fifteen (415) nurses from 14 health centres consisting of primary, secondary and tertiary health centres were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. A structured questionnaire which focused on socio-demographic characteristics, perceived workplace violence (α = 0.91), trait anger (TA) (α = 0.67), negative affectivity (NA) (α = 0.96), self control (SC) (α = 0.83) was used. Data was analysed using multiple regression, one-way ANOVA, and independent t-test at p<.05 level of significance.

The results reveal that the respondents’ average age was 39.89±12.12 years. Females (83.1%) constituted the larger percentage of the respondents. 64.8% were registered nurses (RN), 28.4% had Nursing degree, 3.4% had Masters’ degree  and 2.4% had other qualifications. The nurse worked in the floor shifts (31.6%), critical care (22.9%), intensive care (18.3%) and the operating room (12%) units. Nurses’ trait anger (β = .15), negative affectivity (β = .13) organisational attribution style (β = .15) were significantly associated with frequent experience of perceived workplace  violence.

In conclusion, nursing staff dispositional traits and attribution styles makes them vulnerable to workplace violence.

PDF 23-35


Adedayo, F., (2014) Personality factors as predictors of bullying among secondary school students in south western Nigeria. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications, 2(7): 1-4. www.ijtra.com.

Adedayo, O. & Ishola, A., (2018) Organisational factors predicting perceived workplace violence among nurses in Ondo and Osun States, Nigeria. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.21, 48-61.

Adedayo, O. (2018) Individual and organizational factors as predictors of nurses’ perceived workplace violence in Ondo and Osun States, Nigeria. An unpublished Ph.D thesis submitted to the Department of Psychology, Faculty of the Social Science, University of Ibadan.

Barling, J., Dupré, K. E., & Kelloway, E. K. (2009). Predicting Workplace Aggression and Violence. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 671–692. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.1

Bauer, A. J. & Spector, P.E. (2015) Discrete Negative Emotions and Counterproductive Work Behavior, Human Performance, 28:4, 307-331, DOI: 10.1080/08959285.2015.1021040

Baumann, N. (2012). Autotelic personality. In S. Engeser (Hrsg.) Advances in flow research (9. Kapitel, S. 165-186)). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Lansford, J. E., Sorbring, E., Skinner, A. T., Tapanya, S., … Pastorelli, C. (2015). Hostile attributional bias and aggressive behavior in global context. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(30), 9310–9315. doi:10.1073/pnas.1418572112.

Douglas, S. C., & Martinko, M. J. (2001). Exploring the role of individual differences in the prediction of workplace aggression. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86,547–559.

Emmerik, H.V., Euwema, M. & Baker (2007). Group and organization management. Sage Publication.32, (2): 52-60.

Escribano, R. B., Beneit, J., & Luis Garcia, J. (2019). Violence in the workplace: some critical issues looking at the health sector. Heliyon, 5(3), e01283. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01283

Fortunato,V.J., & Harsh, J. (2006). Stress and sleep quality: The moderating role of negative affectivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 825–836.

Fox, S., Spector, P.E. & Miles, D. (2001). Counterproductive Work Behaviour CWB in response to stressors and organizational justice: Some mediator and moderator tests for autonomy and emotions. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 59:291-301.

Gaynes, B.N., Brown, C. & Lux, L.J. (2016) ‘Strategies To De-escalate Aggressive Behavior in Psychiatric Patients [Internet].’, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US), viewed 4 May 2019, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK379388/

Hegney, D., Eley, R., Plank, A., Buikstra, E. & Parker, V. (2006). Workplace violence in Queensland, Australia: The results of a comparative study. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 12, 220–231.

Hegney, D., Tuckett, A., Parker, D. & Eley, R.M. (2010). Workplace violence: Difference in perceptions of nursing work between those exposed and those not exposed: A cross sector analysis. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16(2): 188-202.

Hershcovis, M.S., Turner, N., Barling, J., Arnold, K.A., Dupré, K.E., Inness, M., LeBlanc, M.M., Sivanathan, N. (2007). Predicting workplace aggression: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 228-238.

Kent, R. & Martinko, M.J. (1995). The development and evaluation of a scale to measure organizational attribution style. In M. Martinko (Ed.), Attribution theory: An organizational perspective. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press. p53–75.

Kish, L.(1965). Survey Sampling. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Kuin, N. C., Masthoff, E., Munafò, M. R., & Penton-Voak, I. S. (2017). Perceiving the evil eye: Investigating hostile interpretation of ambiguous facial emotional expression in violent and non-violent offenders. PloS one, 12(11), e0187080. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0187080

Kwan, S.-O., & Wong, F.-K. D. (2014). The relationship between attributional style and destructive responses to job dissatisfaction: an exploratory study of internal migrant workers in China. Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, 2(1), 686–695. http://doi.org/10.1080/21642850.2014.919864.

Martinko, M.J. & Zellars. K.L. (1998). Toward a theory of workplace violence: A cognitive appraisal perspective. In R.W. Griffin, A, O’Leary-Kelly, & J.M. Collins (Eds.), Dysfunctional behaviour in organsations: Violent and deviant behaviour (pp.1-42). Stamford, CT: JAI Press.

Meier, L. L. & Semmer, N. K. (2013). Lack of reciprocity, narcissism, anger, and instigated workplace incivility: A moderated mediation model. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22, 461-475. doi:10.1080/1359432X.2012.65460.

Montoya, E. R., Terburg, D., Bos, P. A., & van Honk, J. (2012). Testosterone, cortisol, and serotonin as key regulators of social aggression: A review and theoretical perspective. Motivation and Emotion, 36(1), 65–73. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-011-9264-3.

Moss, S.E. & Martinko, M.J. (1998). The effects of performance attributions and outcome dependence on leader feedback behaviour following poor subordinates performance. Journal of Organisation behaviour, 19,259-274.

O’Leary-Kelly, A.M., Griffin, R.W.& Glew, D.J. (1996). Organisation-motivated aggression: A research framework. Academic Management Review, 21:225-253.

Pease, C. (2016) Examining the Role of Individual Differences within the Experience and Expression of Anger. PhD thesis, University of York.

Penney, L.M. & Spector, P. (2005). Job Stress, Incivility, and Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB): The Moderating Role of Negative Affectivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(7), 777-796. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4093955.

Penny, L.M. & P.E. Spector, (2002). Narcissism and counterproductive work behaviour CWB: Do bigger egos mean bigger problems? International Journal of Selection and. Assessment, 10:126-134.

Rydstedt, L.; Johnsen, S. Å. Kjøs; Lundh, M.. & Devereux, J.(2013). (2013) The Conceptual Roles of Negative Positive Affectivity in the Stressor-Strain Relationship, Europe's Journal of Psychology, 2013, Vol. 9(1), 93–103, doi:10.5964/ejop.v9i1.537.

Schultz, D., Grodack, A. & Izard, C.E. (2010). State and trait anger, fear and social information processing. In Potegal, M., Stemmler, G & Speilberger, C. (Eds). International Handbook of Anger, (pp. 311-328). New York: Springer.

Schulz, S. (2015). “Don”t Blow Your Cool’: Provocation, Violent Coping, and the Conditioning Effects of Self-Control. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 32(4), 561–587. doi:10.1007/s10940-015-9267-4

Speilberger, C.D. (1996). State-trait anger expression inventory, research edition: professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Takebe, M., Takahashi, F., & Sato, H. (2016). Anger rumination as a risk factor for trait anger and anger-in: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 451–455. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.038.

Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Boone, A. L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72, 271-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00263.x.

Watson, D. & Clark., L.A. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotion states. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 465-90

Wingrove, J. & Bond, A.J. (2005). Correlation between trait hostility and faster reading times for sentences describing angry reactions to ambiguous situations. Cognition & Emotion, 19, 463-472.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright Notice

Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/