Elena Veldbrecht
Kherson Institute of the Interregional Academy of Personnel Management
Elena Bovdyr
Kherson Institute of the Interregional Academy of Personnel Management
Olesya Samkova
Kherson Institute of the Interregional Academy of Personnel Management
PDF 17-25 (Українська)


meaningfulness of life
goals in life
locus of control
factor analysis
loss of meaning

How to Cite

Veldbrecht, E., Bovdyr, E., & Samkova, O. (2021). FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE LIFE-MEANING ORIENTATIONS TEST IN THE STUDENTS SAMPLE. PSYCHOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 7(10), 17-25. https://doi.org/10.31108/1.2021.7.10.2


The internal consistency and structure of questions of the life-meaning orientations test - the most popular tool for measuring the consciousness of life and the existential orientation of a person - have been studied. Its diagnostic value is undeniable, but the procedure for distributing assessments by subscales raises a number of questions: some items are included in two or three scales at once, and the content of individual items does not correspond to the characteristics of the subscale in which they are included. The vagueness of the factorial structure is explained by the fact that the methodology is based on a one-dimensional approach, which initially did not imply the differentiation of individual components. A survey of 93 students aged 17-24 was carried out, while two versions of the keys to the method, published in 2000 and 2020, were used in parallel. The general indicator of students' life awareness has an average interval of 103.16 ± 18.73, is characterized by a normal distribution and high internal consistency. The factorial structure of variables is not similar to any of the models previously described in methodological sources. The measurement of the meaningfulness of life in the student sample is influenced by five factors that together determine 62.7% of the empirical distribution: 1) the existential fullness of the personality's existence; 2) a sense of controllability and orderliness of life; 3) the success of self-identification (awareness of oneself, one's goals and life purpose); 4) a positive and open perception of one's own life; 5) joyful expectations from the future. The obtained factors only partially reflect the structure of LSS as a mental education of a higher order. First of all, they reveal the peculiarities of understanding their own life in the student population. The study asks the question of the psychological factors that determine the existential characteristics of a person at different stages of life.


PDF 17-25 (Українська)


Crumbaugh, J. C., & Maholick, L. T. (1981). Manual of instructions for the Purpose in Life test. Abilene, TX : Viktor Frankl Institute of Logotherapy. 4 p.

Davies, G., Klaassen, D., Längle, A. (2011). The Purpose in Life Test (PIL) In: Michalos A. C. (ed) Encyclopedia of Quality of Life Research. Heidelberg, New York : Springer. https://www.existenzanalyse.org/wp-content/uploads/Claaseen-L%C3%A4ngle-2011.pdf

Frankl, V. (2001). Teoriya i terapiya nevrozov: Vvedenie v logoterapiyu i ekzistentsialnyiy analiz [Theory and Therapy of Neuroses: An Introduction to Logotherapy and Existential Analysis]. Sankt-Peterburg : Rech. 234 р. [іn Russian]

Harlow, L. L., Newcomb, M. D., & Bentler, P. M. (1987). Purpose in Life Test assessment using latent variable methods. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 26(3), 235–236. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1987.tb01355.x

Heintzelman, S. J., & King, L. A. (2018). Routines and Meaning in Life. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 45 (5), 688-699. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167218795133

Jonsén, E., Fagerström, L., Lundman, B., Nygren, B., Vähäkangas, M., & Strandberg, G. (2010). Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Purpose in Life scale. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 24(1), 41–48. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6712.2008.00682.x.

Leontev, D. A. (2000). Test smyislozhiznennyih orientatsii (SZhO) [Life-meaning Orientation Test]. 2-e izd. M. : Smyisl, 2000. 18 s. [іn Russian]

Leontev, D. A., Kalashnikov, M. O., & Kalashnikova, O. E. (1993) Faktornaya struktura testa smyislozhiznennyih orientatsiy [Factor structure of the test of life-meaning orientations]. Psihologicheskiy zhurnal, 14(1), 150-155 [іn Russian].

Muzdyibaev, K. (1981). Udovletvorennost zhiznyu, oschuschenie schastya, perezhivanie smyisla sobstvennogo byitiya [Satisfaction with life, a feeling of happiness, experiencing the meaning of one's own being]. Rabochiy klass SSSR na rubezhe 80-h godov (Sotsialnyie problemyi razvitiya rabochego klassa v sotsialisticheskom obschestve). M. : IMRD AN SSSR. S. 181-198. [іn Russian]

Noblejas de la Flor М. Á. (1994). Logoterapia. Fundamentos, principios y aplicación. Una experiencia de evaluación del «logro interior de» [Tesis Doctoral, Universidad Complutense de Madrid]. Madrid. 462 с. http://webs.ucm.es/BUCM/tesis//19911996/S/5/S5005701.pdf

Osin, E. N., & Kosheleva, N. V. (2020). Test smyislozhiznennyih orientatsiy: novyie dannyie o strukture i validnosti [Life-meaning orientations test: new data on structure and validity]. Voprosyi psihologii, 66 (6), 150-163.

Schulenberg, S. E., & Melton, A. M. (2010). A Confirmatory Factor-Analytic Evaluation of the Purpose in Life Test: Preliminary Psychometric Support for a Replicable Two-Factor Model. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(1), 95–111. DOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9124-3

Shek, D. T. (1993). The Chinese Purpose-in-Life Test and psychological well-being in Chinese college students. International Forum for Logotherapy, 16(1), 35–42.

Shek, D.T. (1988). Reliability and factorial structure of the Chinese version of the Purpose in Life Questionnaire. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44(3), 384–392. doi: 10.1002/1097-4679(198805)44:3<384::aid-jclp2270440312>3.0.co;2-1

Copyright (c) 2021 Elena Veldbrecht, Elena Bovdyr, Olesya Samkova

Copyright Notice

Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/