The article considers the key issues of client-centered psychotherapy, related to understanding the process, the role of characterological stylistic features of clients in their promotion during psychotherapy. It is shown that clients, depending on the type of process (optimal, fragile, dissociative and psychotic) need different therapeutic strategies of methods. The table of correspondence of type of process of therapeutic strategy and method is resulted. Two main concepts of the genesis of disorders are considered: the theory of conflict and the theory of defect.
Conflict requires awareness in order for the client to enter the "layered" structure of the traumatic experience, gain access to those experiences, early memories, bodily manifestations and cognitive interpretations that make up the traumatic emotional scheme. In this process, the therapist uses a management strategy that is "half a step ahead" that does not destroy the client-centered paradigm itself. Technically, focusing is used as an empathic sensitivity to what is not actually experienced by the client, but what they can already experience with some effort.
In the theory of the defect, the disorder is associated with certain problems in the psychological structure of the client - in the defense system, in the system of "I", in which the reflexive "I" is weakened and, accordingly, bifocal consciousness is disturbed, in the system of emotional self-regulation. Such defects should be alleviated by the support, warmth and love of the therapist for the client. The therapist acts as a "rod" that wraps around the client, getting the opportunity to live like a vine on someone else's trunk. The therapeutic management strategy is to take the "baby" on, hoping for the healing mechanism of the "recapitulation of emotional experience."
The "fragile" process is associated with the neurotic level of mental organization, and in psychotherapy is based on the theory of conflict. The "dissociative" process is associated with the marginal level of mental organization, and in psychotherapy is based on the theory of defect. The defect is eliminated by acceptance and love. The "optimal" process involves the availability of internal resources of self-change, such a client is easy to "call" reflexive technique. The psychotherapist, being "half a step behind" the client, implements the strategy of accompanying the client.
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