The article examines the main types of interactions depending on the leading activity types at different ontogenetic stages, which cause the corresponding new mental formations and determine effective socialization as a whole. It is argued that the leading activities, age-related developmental crises and new mental formations are mainly determined by different levels of interactions, as specific ways of contacts with the environment (natural and cultural) and tools of an individual’s self-development. In particular, the author examines psychologically interpersonal interactions at different stages of psychosocial development: 1) at infancy (an infant’s direct emotional interactions with an adult); 2) at the early age (interactions with the external environment as subject-manipulative activities); 3) at the preschool age (game interactions in a plot-role form); 4) at the primary school age (educational interactions); 5) at adolescence (intimate and confidential peer communications); 6) at the young adult age (educational and professional interactions); 7) at the maturity (co-creation in professional interactions with colleagues); 8) at the late maturity (dialogue of generations as a transfer of one's own life-cultural experiences).
The author proposes a criteria to differentiate interaction levels at various life stages of personality formation: 0) micro-level (“an individual and the virtual world”); 1) meso-level (“an individual and the material sphere”); 2) exo-level (“an individual and symbols”); 3) macro-level (“an individual and society”); 4) mega-level (“an individual and their own inner world”); 5) meta-level (“an individual and the Universe"). This classification corresponds to the levels of an interacting subject’s development (a human being, an individum, a personality, individuality, the universe), the essential features of these levels are presented in the author’s original interpretation. In particular, the motives actualized at each levels are scientifically reasoned and differentiated by the criteria, the prevailing context (biological, statistical, sociological, psychological, spiritual) is outlined and examples of interactions appearing during training sessions and clarifying different levels are given. It is noteworthy that the proposed classification of the interaction levels harmonizes sufficiently with communication levels proposed by A.B. Dobrovich and the corresponding subjective manifestations of personality, namely: 1) a relative (initial) subject (primitive communication); 2) mono-subject (manipulative communication); 3) poly-subject (standardized and conventional levels); 4) meta-subject (game level); 5) absolute subject (business and spiritual levels).
Dobrovich A.B. (1987). Vospitatelyu o psihologii i psihogigiene obscheniya [For the educator about the psychology and psychohygiene of communication]. Moskva: Prosveschenie [in Russian].
Hirniak A. N. (2019). Psykholohichna diahnostyka mizhosobystisnoi vzaiemodii zasobamy sotsiometrychnoho opytuvannia [Psychological diagnostics of interpersonal interaction by means of sociometric survey]. Psykholohiia i suspilstvo – Psychology and society, 3-4, 138–147 [in Ukrainian].
GIrnyak A. N. & GIrnyak G.S. (2019). Modulno-rozvivalniy navchalniy kompleks yak psihodidaktichniy instrument nalagodzhennya osvitnoyi vzaemodiyi [Modular and developmental educational complex as a psychodidactic tool for establishing educational interaction]. Metodologiya i psihologiya gumanitarnogo piznannya. Do 25-richchya naukovoyi shkoli profesora A.V. Furmana – Modular and developmental educational complex as a psychodidactic tool for establishing educational interaction, (pp. 902-979). Ternopil: TNEU [in Ukrainian].
Etapi rozvitku osobistosti za Erikom Eriksonom [Stages of personality development according to Eric Erickson]. Psihologis : Entsiklopediya praktichnoyi psihologiyi – Psychologist: Encyclopedia of practical psychology. Retrieved from http://psychologis.com.ua/-1-399.htm. (data zvernennia: 22.06.2020) [in Ukrainian].
Karpenko Z. (2018). Aksiologichna psihologiya osobistosti :[Axiological psychology of personality: monograph]. Ivano-Frankivsk: DVNZ «Prikarpatskiy natsionalniy universitet imeni Vasilya Stefanika» [in Ukrainian].
Makarenko A. S. (1984). Pedagogicheskie sochineniya [Pedagogical works]. (Vols. 1-8): Moskva: Pedagogika [in Russian].
Mudrik A.V. (2006). Sotsializatsiya cheloveka [Socialization of man]. Moskva: Akademiya [in Russian].
Podolyak L.G. & Yurchenko V.I. (2008). Psihologiya vischoyi shkoli [Psychology of high school]. Kiyiv: Karavela [in Ukrainian].
Raygorodskiy D. Ya. (2008). Prakticheskaya psihodiagnostika. Metodiki i testyi [Practical psychodiagnostics. Techniques and tests]. Samara: Izdatelskiy dom «Bahrar – M» [in Russian].
Sagatovskiy V. N. (1980). Sotsialnoe proektirovanie (k osnovam teorii) [Social design (to the basics of theory)]. Prikladnaya etika i upravlenie nravstvennyim vospitaniem – Applied ethics and moral education management, (pp. 65-69). Tomsk: Izdatelstvo Tomskogo universiteta [in Russian].
Slobodchikov V.I. & Isaev E.I. (1995). Osnovyi psihologicheskoy antoropologii. Psihologiya cheloveka: Vvedenie v psihologiyu subyektivnosti [Foundations of psychological anthropology. Human psychology: An introduction to the psychology of subjectivity]. Moskva: Shkola-Press [in Russian].
Filonov L.B. (1982). Psihologicheskie aspektyi ustanovleniya kontaktov mejdu lyudmi (metodika kontaktnogo vzaimodeystviya) [Psychological aspects of establishing contacts between people (method of contact interaction)]. Puschino: NTSBI AN SSSR [in Russian].
Furman A.V. & GIrnyak A.N. (2020). Psihorozvivalna vzaemodiya v osvitnomu protsesi ta yiyi kontseptualni zasadi [Psycho-developmental interaction in the educational process and its conceptual principles]. PsihologIchniy chasopis – Psychological Journal, 6 (38), 9-18 [in Ukrainian].
Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/