Andriy Hirnyak
Ternopil National Economic University
PDF 109-118 (Українська)


interpersonal interactions
social relations
subjects of the educational process
age psychology
level of interactions
level of an interacting subject’s development

How to Cite



The article examines the main types of interactions depending on the leading activity types at different ontogenetic stages, which cause the corresponding new mental formations and determine effective socialization as a whole. It is argued that the leading activities, age-related developmental crises and new mental formations are mainly determined by different levels of interactions, as specific ways of contacts with the environment (natural and cultural) and tools of an individual’s self-development. In particular, the author examines psychologically interpersonal interactions at different stages of psychosocial development: 1) at infancy (an infant’s direct emotional interactions with an adult); 2) at the early age (interactions with the external environment as subject-manipulative activities); 3) at the preschool age (game interactions in a plot-role form); 4) at the primary school age (educational interactions); 5) at adolescence (intimate and confidential peer communications); 6) at the young adult age (educational and professional interactions); 7) at the maturity (co-creation in professional interactions with colleagues); 8)  at the late maturity (dialogue of generations as a transfer of one's own life-cultural experiences).

The author proposes a criteria to differentiate interaction levels at various life stages of personality  formation: 0) micro-level (“an individual and the virtual world”); 1) meso-level (“an individual and the material sphere”); 2) exo-level (“an individual and symbols”); 3) macro-level (“an individual and society”); 4) mega-level (“an individual and their own inner world”); 5) meta-level (“an individual and the Universe"). This classification corresponds to the levels of an interacting subject’s development (a human being, an individum, a personality, individuality, the universe), the essential features of these levels are presented in the author’s original interpretation. In particular, the motives actualized at each levels are scientifically reasoned and differentiated by the criteria, the prevailing context (biological, statistical, sociological, psychological, spiritual) is outlined and examples of interactions appearing during training sessions and clarifying different levels are given. It is noteworthy that the proposed classification of the interaction levels harmonizes sufficiently with communication levels proposed by A.B. Dobrovich and the corresponding subjective manifestations of personality, namely: 1) a relative (initial) subject (primitive communication); 2) mono-subject (manipulative communication); 3) poly-subject (standardized and conventional levels); 4) meta-subject (game level); 5) absolute subject (business and spiritual levels).


PDF 109-118 (Українська)


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