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The article analyses the psychological category of lies in the perspective of polygraph examinations, which are now popular and in demand. It is emphasized that polygraph examinations are the only tool for establishing the truth, which is built taking into account the patterns of neural connections in the human brain and involves comprehensive consideration of psychophysiological changes in an individual’s body. Testing with a lie detector is a unique instrumental technique, a complex process of special equipment depending on a polygraph examiner’s professionalism in order to establish the truth, because a polygraph is a device that detects lies, i.e. special hardware for special verification of truthfulness. In our country the use of the polygraph is indirectly regulated at the legislative level, in particular, examinations of people in general are allowed, but polygraph testing is not specified. There is still no special law determining an algorithm for polygraph using. The current regulations governing the procedure for polygraph inspections are departmental and relate to staffing. The activity of polygraph examiners in Ukraine is widespread, but in the format of services provided by public organizations.

The essential content of lie detection, which is understood as a set of techniques that help determine the reliability and veracity of information, is analyzed. Because a lie means deliberate distortion of information and polygraph examinations are a type of research activity aimed at truth establishing, the concepts, functions, forms and types of lies are described. During a polygraph investigation, a lie means transmission of information that is completely or partially untrue; it means distortion (cognitive changes), untruth, insincerity (pretending), deception aimed at truth concealing or misleading. Given that the most common reasons for using a lie detector are a competition or examination of candidates for a vacant position, official investigations, forensic psychological examination or personal initiatives, the examined people mostly tries to convince, prove something, justify, etc., so the function of lies to protect interests, often their own. There are two forms of lies: silence and distortion. By default, the information is hidden, but not distorted; in the case of distortion, it is not only hidden, but also supplemented or replaced and pretended to be true. Common types of lies in polygraph research are: mystification, substitution of concepts, self-deception, lying for good, misleading, exaggeration / belittling, slander. Levels of lie recognition (psychophysiological, verbal, nonverbal) and approaches to its detection (emotional, volitional, cognitive) are determined. Emphasis is placed on the psychological aspects of lie detection when using a polygraph. Attention is paid to topical issues of lie detection with a polygraph.
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