PSYCHOLOGICAL JOURNAL http://apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal <p>'Psychological journal' is a peer-reviewed scientific review, published by H. S. Kostyuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine from 2015 year, 6-12 times a year.</p> <p>The scientific review is listed in Special edition of scientific professional publications of Ukraine (Resolution of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine 22.12.2016 № 1604), and it has The Certificate of state registration of the printed source of mass media in Ukraine (KB № № 21164-10964 Р of 16.12.2014). Attributed ISSN is 2414-0023 for printed journal and 2414-004X for its electronic version.</p> <p>Editorial Board of the Collection consists of at least 42% of international members. The scientific review also publishes the authors with foreign affiliation.</p> <p>Program goals (basic principles) include the development and dissemination of scientific knowledge in the field of psychology. The collection of research papers is published for charitable purposes and intended for free distribution.</p> <p>The scientific review publishes materials, which cover problems of psychological science and practice, promote their wide distribution and overall development of psychological knowledge. The aim of publication is to provide a deeper integration and close cooperation between science and practice, promote the introduction of new scientific and applied research, publish papers of renowned and respected authors and also the papers of young researchers.</p> en-US <p><strong>Copyright Notice</strong></p> <p>Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link -&nbsp;https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/</p> klimovskyiss@gmail.com (Klimovskyi Stanislav) klimovskyiss@gmail.com (Klimovskyi Stanislav) Wed, 05 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 EXPERT ASSESSMENT OF JOURNALISTS’ PROFESSIONALLY IMPORTANT QUALITIES http://apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/557 <p>The article discusses the personal aspect of journalists’ professional self–esteem, which includes professionally important qualities (PIQ) or core personal competencies. We used the structure of professional self-appraisal that was proposed by a famous scientist Rean A.A. He pointed two main aspects of professional self–appraisal: the personal aspect and the operational–activity one.</p> <p>The topic of journalists’ professional self–esteem is important, because journalists determine public views by their work. At the same time journalists’ professional work is determined by their core personal competencies and moral values. However, journalists’ PIQ have not studied yet, as we have revealed after analyzing a lot of scientific articles (there are only articles about journalists’ creativity or values, but not about professional self-appraisal especially based on A.A. Rean’s theory).</p> <p>Thus, expert assessment of main journalists’ PIQ, previously selected from the corresponding professiograms and psychograms, was performed. The assessment was designed in the form of semantic differential, where every quality could be assessed from 1 up to 5. As experts, we invited scientists from the Institute of Journalism of National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv with their professional experience from 4 to 27 years.</p> <p>The results were analyzed with different statistical methods including clustering. We identified two groups of PIQ, which, in fact, is the same two groups as were identified by Karpov: absolute and relative PIQ. The first group consists of properties that are necessary to perform activities at the normative level (the basic PIQ for a particular type of activity). The second group, or relative PIQ, allows achieving outstanding results in the professional work. Thereby, according to the performed expert assessment, the following journalists’ qualities were included into the group of absolute PIQ: moral qualities, objectivity, ability to work with sources, critical thinking, efficiency, professional knowledge, philological skills and etc. Also, the following qualities are the relative PIQ: ingenuity, adaptability, correctness, activity, good attention, leadership qualities, good memory, stress resistance and etc.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Alina Bakhvalova ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/557 Wed, 05 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 SOME PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF STUDENTS’ COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIOMETRIC STRUCTURING http://apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/559 <p>The formation of communicative abilities and skills at universities is highlighted in the article. This problem is particularly important, since future professionals’ training should be supported by their communicative literacy, competence, effective information exchange at interpersonal interactions. The purpose of the experimental study was to analyze psychologically the formation of communicative needs, abilities and skills of students at universities. In order to achieve the set purpose, the experimental study were conducted that had three major phases: 1) division of students by sociometric categories (based on J.Moreno’s test); 2) determining the levels of communicative need formation at the representatives of different categories (according to Yu. Orlov’s test); 3) determining communicative abilities and skills of the representatives of the determined categories (by L.&nbsp;Mikhelson's test).</p> <p>According to the sociometric research results, the highest percentage choices are given to the students from the group of popular students (39.7%), which is a favourable factor for formed communicative and interpersonal relationships in the group. There are also a lot of unpopular persons (38.1%); they received less than half of all choices. A favourable tendency is the fact that the both groups have a low index of isolation (6.3%), which can be significantly reduced under the condition of properly organized psychological corrective work.</p> <p>The study of communicative needs, carried out with Y. Orlov’s test "Research on the need for communication", has shown that favourable tendencies were determined at 95.24% of the students, among which the average level of communicative need formation was shown by the largest number of the respondents (73.02 %), above average indicators were shown by 19.05% of the respondents and the high level was achieved by 3.17% of the students. On this basis, one can argue that the focus on communication is preserved among students. At the same time, there is a small number of students (4.76%) with unfavourable tendencies according to the test. Their level of communicative needs is lower than the average one. Such young people do not show a desire for community and cooperation, do not like to be among people and friends, participate in various events.</p> <p>The study investigating the students’ communicative skills on the basis of L.&nbsp;Mikhelson's test has shown that 39.7% of the respondents demonstrates competent behaviour and preferred to use competent statements during communicative interactions. At the same time, according to the research results, a significant number of students showed aggressive behavioural tendencies (38.1%) and there is a small percentage of the respondents who showed addictive behaviour (15.9%).</p> <p>In order to summarize the research results and to find out their correlations, the obtained data were analyzed statistically, to determine such statistics as the average arithmetic sample (X), the median (Me), the mod (Mo), the dispersion (Sx), the correlation coefficient (Rxy). One of the most important outcomes of the performed statistical analysis was correlations calculated by Pearson correlation formula. Interdependence was determined only by two pairs of variables: a) sociometric status and competent behaviour – the coefficient 0,3290 indicates a direct moderate correlation; b) sociometric status and aggressive behaviour – the coefficient (-0.3570) indicates a reverse moderate correlation. Consequently, the higher the social status is, the more developed the competent communication is revealed in the use of competent statements, and the lower are aggressive manifestations, the less aggressive statements are used.</p> <p>Further research perspectives consist in the development of psychological corrective programs for communicative skills and abilities for students with addictive and aggressive forms of behaviour.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nataliia Honcharuk, Liana Onufriieva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/559 Wed, 05 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 THE FEATURES OF PRIMARY-SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN’S NEGATIVE EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCES http://apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/560 <p>In recent years, research in emotions becomes the more and more important scientific and practical task because emotionality is one of the most important features in the structure of a schoolchild’s personality.&nbsp; However, primary-school-age children’s negative emotional experiences, examined in this article, are presented insufficiently in psychological studies, because the concept of "negative emotions" is not defined clearly and its correspondence with "negative emotional experiences", "anxiety", "fears", psychical health, etc. are not determined, in spite of the fact that these emotions and emotional states are important for development of children’s emotional sphere.&nbsp; At the primary-school age, according to the leading national psychologists,&nbsp; many emotions appears, so children are able to experience joy, anger, shame, fear, anxiety, trust, disappointment, pleasure, pride.&nbsp; The existing chain of failures experienced by a child or, on the contrary, successes (in learning, communication) leads to the formation of stable affective complexes - a sense of inferiority, bitterness, etc.&nbsp; Generalization of emotions appears at this age.&nbsp; Further, these formations can be changed or disappear with the accumulation of experience and socialization on the micro-, macro-, and meso-levels.&nbsp; But some of them, being supported by some life events, are fixed in the structure of a personality and affect self-appraisal and the level of aspiration.&nbsp;</p> <p>Thus, negative emotional experiences of primary schoolchildren are caused by unpleasant subjective emotions, which start the mechanisms of adaptive behaviour aimed at elimination of physical and psychological causes of such experiences.&nbsp; The following socio-psychological factors:&nbsp; lack of emotional contact between parents and their children, limited communications between parents and their children, adults’ ignorance on age and individual psychological peculiarities; inadequate parental styles (symbolic, authoritarian, emotional-repulsive);&nbsp; appearance of new children’s activities that demand new relationships with parents, teachers, peers;&nbsp; influence of various subcultures, mass media and computer games;&nbsp; existing barriers in communications, and styles of children's relations can influence emotional development both in the positive and negative ways and can cause increased emotional tension and lead to appearance of persistent negative psychic characteristics.</p> <p>&nbsp;When children enter to school, their experiences acquire a new meaning: interpersonal relations are established, emotions becomes hierarchically structured, a sense of self-importance appears; therefore, there is a discrepancy between inner life (emotional experience, feelings, mood, etc.) and external behaviour.</p> <p>&nbsp;The article substantiates that negative emotional experiences affect the situation of failure, uncertainty in oneself, etc.&nbsp; The carried out pilot study has confirmed our assumption concerning negative experiences caused by lack of children’s emotional communications in their families and at the learning environment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hanna Gud ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/560 Wed, 05 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 THE THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEMS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN’S INTELLIGENCE DEVELOPMENT http://apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/561 <p>The article highlights the problems of primary school age children’s intelligence development. The author raises questions on the structure and processes of intellectual development of such children within the boundaries of the pedagogical psychology and shows that the psychological characteristic of intellectual development are inextricably linked with the general development of higher mental processes. The article discusses also the requirements of the "new Ukrainian school" concerning intellectual development.</p> <p>The present problem is also topical because the classical theories (the theories of P.Ya.Galperin, L.S. Vygotsky, P.P. Blonskii) should be updated to correspond to the modern age psychology.</p> <p>The article concludes that the theoretically analysed problem of primary school age children’s intelligence development provides grounds for methodological searches and further empirical research.</p> <p>The holistic development of intelligence at the primary school age takes place in the following directions:</p> <p>1) assimilation and active use of language as a means of thinking. This direction is related to the development of children's speech, its active use by solving various problems. It is important to teach children to think aloud, verbally reproduce thoughts and verbalize (express in words) the process and the results of solved tasks and exercises;</p> <p>2) combination and mutual enrichment of all types of thinking: visually-effective, visual-figurative, verbal-logical. To this end, children are offered tasks that require both practical actions and the ability to manipulate images, concepts, and express judgments at the level of logical abstractions;</p> <p>3) separation of the preparatory and executive phases of the task. At the preparatory phase, children analyze task conditions and produce a plan, which is implemented practically at the executive phase. At the same time, it is mandatory to check the results (Petrovsky, 1996). If any of these areas are difficult, problematic for a child, it means that the child’s intellectual development is one-sided.</p> <p>Thus, the modern psychology considers the intelligence functions not only as a memory or thinking, but mainly as a factor in the internal activities, as the base of learning. The article proves that the learning process not only improves mental abilities and forms new intellectual qualities, but also restructures the intellectual sphere.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anastasiya Shsherbenyuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/561 Wed, 05 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE SYNDROME OF EARLY CHILDHOOD AUTISM http://apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/562 <p>The article touches the actual issue of significant increase of this pathology in Ukraine and in the world, as well as the need to integrate children with the ECA into the educational environment at the early age. Current research suggests that there is an increasing number of children suffering from a severe developmental disorder - autistic syndrome. Therefore, in recent decades, scientific studies in defectology pay a lot of attention to such anomaly of mental development as early childhood autism. This problem is becoming more and more interested by psychiatrists (especially children ones), psychologists, and educators. Autism is a problem not only for children, but also for their families and society at all. This disorder is often called "hidden" because autistic problems often remain unrevealed. Moreover, at educational institutions, children with autistic tendencies need skilled psychological and pedagogical help, which consists in creating the emotional and psychological comfort environment, raising a sense of confidence and security, and introducing gradually and carefully new skills and behavioural patterns. Diagnosis of early childhood autism is based on the observation method.</p> <p>Recently, more and more attention has been paid to studying and correcting various mental disorders of children. Quite a lot of literature appeared, including recommendations as for mental retardation, impaired learning and upbringing, behavioural and communicative deviations. But still, many more questions remain not fully understood.</p> <p>For example, the problem of early childhood autism (ECA), when communicative disorders prevail in a child’s behaviour and have major influence on his/her anomalous development, while at other mental disorders, communicative problems are secondary or insignificantly small in comparison with the primary disorders: mental retardation, neurotic disorders, speech and hearing defects, and so on. Correction of early childhood autism is a rather difficult task. The syndrome of early childhood autism is associated with special violations of children’s mental development, which baffles their relatives. This problem is very poorly studied and many questions remain open still, which complicates the processes of education, upbringing and correction of such children. Many questions arise in families with such children. At the same time, parents, as a rule, emphasize that they do not consider their children mentally retarded.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Olga Tsarkova, Olesia Prokofieva, Daria Anosova ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/562 Wed, 05 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300