Inter-subjectivity means such interpersonal co-operation, which stimulates inspiration, initiatives and activities, assists growth of actors’ agency. It’s necessary to learn philosophical-theoretical foundations of this problem.
There are certain regularities of transition of subjective interactions into inter-subjective ones when a certain temporary overcoming of critical contradictions at common actions and interrelations takes place. These contradictions are solved by the fact that a common activity arises basing on the change of relations, and this immediately changes the relations.
Interaction can be classified as 1) inter-object (for instance, interaction of slaves at the plantation); 2) inter-subject (without taking into consideration a subjective position of another person); 3) inter-subjective (with taking into consideration a subjective position of another person). The basis for this classification is the development of interpersonal relations.
Any phenomenon, including the inter-subjective interactions, can be viewed from the standpoint of L.S. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical theory, but in its accomplished form. We bear in mind the systemic character of this theory which was described by L.S. Vygotsky at the end of his life and later developed by A.R. Luria, in particular in his neuropsychologic practice.
Higher psychological functions are social in their nature and origin, have a systemic character and are chrogenous (in other words, they exist and are changing in time).
Ontogenetically and phylogenetically, an original construction of higher psychic as a system, and a higher psychological function as a systemic formation presupposes another agent in all cases, and the latter is of equal value and personally significant.
It is necessary to make a general review of philosophical and theoretical fundamentals of inter-subjectivity so that specific scientific and empirical studies can stand on the reflected and deliberated position.
The philosophical-theoretical research on agency and its origins has a very long history in the Western European intellectual tradition, being presented by diverse spectrum of accents and approaches in different schools of thought. Agency as an immanently inherent human tendency to be the source of one’s own activities was studied by various thinkers, and theoretical searches of sources, features and manifestations of agency are still under way. Inter-subjective co-operation is a special form of agency; a person draws inspiration for unleashing his/her potential from such cooperation. Inter-subjectivity as a dialog of agents is the ultimate form of anthropological knowledge development focused on human possibilities in his/her attitude toward others and the whole world.
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