In the article a theoretical and methodological analysis of the problem of thinking in psychological science is given, the age and individual psychological characteristics of preschool children is presented. The accumulated theoretical and practical experience is considered in the following sequence: the classification of children mental development, age ontogenesis of thinking characteristics, individual psychological characteristics of children who have certain possibilities of interaction with different types of thinking. The purpose of the article is to analyze the dynamics of thinking development in preschool age. Research methods - theoretical analysis of domestic and foreign scientific sources, which allowed to identify, summarize and organize the materials on the research problem. The results of the study of age characteristics of preschool children showed that at all stages of development of thinking the key importance is given to its ontogenesis. Many researchers have dealt with the development of children's thinking, but currently the only periodization of the age of mental development of the child does not exist. The most famous classifications of speech ontogenesis are presented by J. Piage and P. Y. Galperin. The age ontogenesis of thinking of a child from the sensorimotor intelligence of a newborn to the stage of operational thinking of a preschooler is considered, which attracts special attention of psychologists, because it is during this period that children must acquire the skills to operate visual images, to represent objects in different spatial positions, to form an internal plan of action of thinking. It is shown that children's intelligence from early childhood to senior preschool age operates on the basis of the principle of consistency and, if necessary, at the same time included in all types and levels of thinking: visual-effective, visual-figurative, visual-schematic and verbal-logical. The phenomenon of "syncretism" is considered the dynamics of thinking development in preschool age is systematized and presented, individual psychological features of children such as curiosity, activity, criticality in the context of thinking are analyzed. Conclusions: the expediency of studying the relationship between the development of visual-effective and visual-imaginative thinking with an impressive (internal) and expressive (external) speech of a child of preschool age.
Abulkhanova-Slavskaia, K. A. (1981) Razvitie lichnosti v protsesse zhiznedeiatelnosti [Personality development in the process of life] // Psikhologiia formirovaniia i razvitiia lichnosti [Psychology of formation and development of personality]. Moscow : Nauka. S. 19 – 44. [in Russian].
Ananev, B. G. (1996) Psikhologiia i problemy chelovekozianiia [Psychology and problems of anthropology] // Izbrannye psikhologicheskie trudy [Selected psychological works] Gl. IV. Psikhologicheskaia struktura lichnosti i ee stanovlenie v protsesse individualnogo razvitiia cheloveka [Psychological structure of personality and its formation in the process of individual human development]. Moscow - Voronezh. S. 196-280. [in Russian].
Vyhotskyi, L. S. (2004) Voprosyi detskoy psihologii [Сhild psychology issues]. Saint-Petersburg. 224 s. [in Russian].
Vygotskij, L. S. (1999) Myshlenie i rech' [Thinking and speech]. Moscow : Labirint. 351 s. [in Russian].
Vygotskii, L. S. (1983) Sobranie сochinenii [Collected works] : V 6-ti t. T. 3. Problemy razvitiia psikhiki [Problems of development of mentality] Moscow : Pedagogika. 368 s. [in Russian].
Halperin, P. Ia. (2001) K voprosu o razvitii myishleniya doshkolnikov [Formation of mental actions]. Hrestomatiya po vozrastnoy i pedagogicheskoy psihologii –[Reader. Cognitive mental processes]. Sost. i zah. red. A. H. Maklakova. Saint-Petersburg : Pyter. 451 s. [in Russian].
Kryvosheja, T. M. (2015) Vzajemozv'jazok obraznogho i loghichnogho myslennja jak shljakh do gharmonizaciji rozumovoji dijaljnosti doshkiljnykiv [Interrelation of figurative and logical thinking as a way to harmonization of mental activity of preschool children] // Imidzh suchasnogho pedaghogha [Image of the modern teacher] : Naukovo-praktychnyj osvitnjo-populjarnyj zhurnal [Scientific and practical educational and popular magazine]. N 6. S. 25-27. [in Ukrainian].
Kudykina, N. V. (2012) Teorija ighrovoji dijaljnosti ditej [Theory of children's plays activities] : monoghrafija. Kyjiv. un-t im. B. Ghrinchenka. Kyiv. 235 c. [in Ukrainian].
Levshunova, K. V. (2015) Psykhichne blaghopoluchchja starshykh doshkiljnykiv pid vplyvom proghramy pidvyshhennja jikh rukhovoji aktyvnosti [Mental well-being of older preschoolers under the influence of the program to increase their physical activity]. Aktualjni problemy psykhologhiji [Actual problems of psychology] : Zbirnyk naukovykh pracj Instytutu psykhologhiji imeni Gh.S.Kostjuka NAPN Ukrajiny [Collection of scientific works of the Institute of psychology named by G. S. Kostyuk of NAPN of Ukraine]. Kharkov : KC FOP Ivanovoji M.A. Tom IV. Psykhologhija rozvytku doshkiljnyka [Developmental psychology of the preschool child]. Vypusk 11. S. 126 - 134. [in Ukrainian].
Maksymenko, S. D. (2000) Ghenetycheskaja psykhologhyja [Genetic psychology]. Metodologhycheskaja refleksyja problem razvytyja v psykhologhyy [Methodological reflection of the problems of development in psychology] : Monoghrafyja. Kyiv : Refl-Buk Vakler. 320s. [in Ukrainian].
Pavelkiv, R. V. (2004) Rozvytok moraljnoji svidomosti ta samosvidomosti u dytjachomu vici [Development of moral consciousness and self-consciousness in childhood] : monoghrafija. Rovno: Volyn. obereghy. 248 s. [in Ukrainian].
Pasichnyk, I. D. (2013) Myslennja jak predmet psykhologhiji [Thinking as a subject of psychology]. Naukovi zapysky [Scientific notes]. Serija «Psykhologhija i pedaghoghika» [Series "Psychology and pedagogy»] Vypusk 25. S. 3-9. [in Ukrainian].
Pasichnyk, N. O. (2015) Osoblyvosti vzajemozv'jazku obraznogho i ponjatijnogho myslennja v uchniv molodshogho shkiljnogho viku [Features of interrelation of figurative and conceptual thinking at pupils of younger school age] «Pedaghoghichna ta vikova psykhologhija» ["Pedagogical and age psychology"]. Kyiv. 24 s. [in Ukrainian].
Piazhe, Zh. (1998) Rech' i myshlenie rebenka [Speech and child thinking]. Moscow. 347s. [in Russian].
Poddiakov, N. N. (1981) K voprosu o razvitii myishleniya doshkolnikov [To the question of preschoolers thinking development] Hrestomatiya po vozrastnoy i pedagogicheskoy psihologii [Reader in developmental and educational psychology]. Ch. II. Moscow : Nauka. 458 s. [in Russian].
Prokoliienko, L. M. (1979) Formuvannia dopytlyvosti v ditei doshkilnoho viku [The formation of the curiosity in children of preschool age] Kyiv : Radianska shkola. 88 s. [in Ukrainian].
Tovkach, I. Je. (2016) Analiz indyvidualjnykh kharakterystyk struktury projavu piznavaljnoji aktyvnosti starshykh doshkiljnykiv [Analysis of individual characteristics of the cognitive activity structure of older preschoolers]. Aktualjni problemy psykhologhiji [Actual problems of psychology] : zb. nauk. pr. In-tu psykhologhiji im. Gh. S. Kostjuka NAPN Ukrajiny. Kyiv : TOV «Sribna Khvylja», T. IV. Vyp. 12. S. 145–155. [in Ukrainian].
Tovkach, I. Je. (2017) Indyvidualjni osoblyvosti piznavaljnoji aktyvnosti starshykh doshkiljnykiv [Individual features of cognitive activity of senior preschoolers] : «Pedaghoghichna ta vikova psykhologhija» ["Pedagogical and age psychology"]. Kyiv. 23s. [in Ukrainian].
Elkonin, D. B. (1971) K probleme periodizatsii psikhicheskogo razvitiia v detskom vozraste [To the problem of mental development periodization in childhood] Voprosy psikhologii [Question of psychology]. № 4. S. 6–20.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/