THE SPIRITUAL PLANE OF SOCIETY AND A PERSON IN IT
Igor Zvarych
Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2033-5054
Halyna Chuyko
Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3424-3348
PDF 81-102 (Українська)

Keywords

spirituality
morality
existential values
life meaning
mental
religiosity

How to Cite

Zvarych, I., & Chuyko, H. (2019). THE SPIRITUAL PLANE OF SOCIETY AND A PERSON IN IT. PSYCHOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 5(4), 81-102. https://doi.org/10.31108/1.2019.5.4.6

Abstract

The article analyzes theoretically the phenomenon of spirituality and its interpretations in the foreign and national psychology.

The article shows that a commonly accepted general definition of this concept in psychology is absent, and various attempts to explain it reflect insufficient clarity of its understanding and attempts to separate it from the concepts of "mental" and "moral" and from strictly religious or strictly laic explanations.

The foreign psychological approaches, in particular, the existential (V. Frankl, R. May, L. Binswanger) one, include the spiritual plane into understanding of a person and his/her existence; life meanings and existential values are examined on this plane, which not only can give a meaning for a human life, but also raise an individual to the highest development and moral perfection.

The national psychology, in which the theme of spirituality was forbidden for a long time, apprehends this concept too ambiguously: from misunderstanding or non-acceptance and rejection of the spirituality essence (this approach was characteristic for the soviet period) to equalising it with the cultural development of society or an individual.

In the national psychology, the most profound understanding of spirituality and its meaning in an individual’s life has been made by B.S. Bratus. He analyzes the role of spirituality as the basis for creation of a new humanistic paradigm, where a person is regarded as a goal and as a value, not as means, and has made a conclusion about the possibility to bring personal psychology into the moral space, so he develops the eschatological psychology or axiological psychology based on these ideas. The other national scholar, working in this field, is V.I. Slobodchikov, who understands spirituality as a personal lifestyle that opens sacred personal relationship with a higher power, the God, which gives meaning to an individual’s life and helps him/her to understand his/her life purpose; in contrast to D.O. Leontyev’s views, who reduces spirituality to the highest level of human self-regulation.

The article concludes that spirituality, which understanding can be wholly subjective because its polysemic and philosophical depth, is intrinsic to the human nature and is unfolded on an individual’s life path, and the necessary components of spirituality are: an individual’s morality, living in harmony with own conscience, the recognition of the Divine Principle as the basis of own existence, orientation to eternal sacred values.

 

PDF 81-102 (Українська)

References

Binsvanger, L. (1999). Bytie-v-mire. Izbrannye stat'i [Being-in-the-world. Featured Articles]. Moskva : Refl-buk; Kiev : Vakler [in Russian].

Bratus', B.S. (2005). Estestvennonauchnaja i gumanitarnaja paradigmy v psihologii: preemstvennost' ili skachok? [Natural science and humanitarian paradigms in psychology: continuity or leap?] Izvestija JuFU. Tehnicheskie nauki – News SFU. Technical science, 7. Retrieved from : https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/estestvennonauchnaya-i-gumanitarnaya-paradigmy-v-psihologii-preemstvennost-ili-skachok [in Russian].

Bratus', B.S. (1997). K probleme cheloveka v psihologii [To the problem of man in psychology]. Voprosy psihologii – Psychology issues, 5. Retrieved from : http://psylib.org.ua/books/_bratu01.htm [in Russian].

Bratus', B.S. (1990). Opyt obosnovanija gumanitarnoj psihologii [Experience justifying of humanitarian psychology]. Voprosy psihologii – Psychology issues, 6. Retrieved from : http://www.voppsy.ru/issues/1990/906/906009.htm [in Russian].

Bratus', B.S. (1993). Ot gumanitarnoj paradigmy v psihologii k paradigme jeshatologicheskoj [From the humanitarian paradigm in psychology to the eschatological paradigm]. Voprosy filosofii – Philosophy issues, 5, 3-43. Retrieved from : http://psyberlink.flogiston.ru/internet/bits/psychsci8.htm [in Russian].

Voskovskaja (Shutova), L. V., & Ljashuk, A. V. (2005). Duhovnyj krizis: problemy opredelenija i diagnostiki [Spiritual crisis: problems of definition and diagnostics]. Psihologicheskaja diagnostika – Psychological diagnosis, 1. 51–71 [in Russian].

Grinjova, E.A., & Davletshina, L.H. (2013). K voprosu o sushhnosti ponjatij «duhovnost'», «nravstvennost'», «duhovno-nravstvennyj potencial» [To the question of the essence of the concepts of "spirituality", "morality", "spiritual and moral potential"]. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovanija – Modern problems of science and education, 1. Retrieved from : http://www.science-education.ru/ru/article/view?id=8458 [in Russian].

Grof, S. (2003). Duhovnyj krizis: ponimanie jevoljucionnogo krizisa [Spiritual crisis: understanding the evolutionary crisis]. Grof, S., Grof, K. Duhovnyj krizis. Kogda preobrazovanie lichnosti stanovitsja krizisom – Spiritual crisis. When transformation of personality becomes a crisis. Moskva : AST. Retrieved from : http://bookap.info/trans/grof_duhovnyy_krizis_kogda_ preobrazovanie_lichnosti_stanovitsya_krizisom/ [in Russian].

Dmytrenko, A. K., & Chujko, G. V. (2002). Osnovy gumanistychnoi' psyhologii' [Basics of humanistic psychology]. Chernivci : Prut [in Ukrainian].

Duhovnyj. (1971). Slovnyk ukrai'ns'koi' movy – Dictionary of the Ukrainian language. (Vol. 2). Retrieved from : http://sum.in.ua/p/2/445/1 [in Ukrainian].

Duhovnost'. (1998). Kratkij psihologicheskij slovar' – A brief psychological dictionary. Retrieved from : http://psychology.net.ru/dictionaries/psy.html?word=279 [in Russian].

Zemcov, Ju. N. (2017). Duhovnyj krizis: prichiny, dinamika, posledstvija [Spiritual crisis: causes, dynamics, consequences]. Sovremennye aspekty gumanitarnogo znanija : materialy II Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. –Modern aspects of humanitarian knowledge: Proceedings of the II Intern. scientific-practical conf., (pp. 32–36). Voronezh : IPC «Nauchnaja kniga» [in Russian].

Il'icheva, I.M. (2003). Psihologija duhovnosti [Psychology of spirituality]. Extended abstract of Doctor’s thesis. Sankt-Peterburg : RGPI. Retrieved from : http://nauka-pedagogika.com/psihologiya-19-00-01/dissertaciya-psihologiya-duhovnosti [in Russian].

Kalina, N.F. (1999). Pervaja kniga o Dasein-analize [The first book about Dasein-analysis]. Binsvanger L. Bytie-v-mire. Izbrannye stat'i – Being -in-the-world. Featured Articles. (pp.9-10). Moskva : Refl-buk; Kiev: Vakler [in Russian].

Kozlov, V.I. (2005). Duhovnost' na puti dobra – Spirituality on the path of good. Retrieved from : https://www.psychologos.ru/articles/view/duhovnost-na-puti-dobra [in Russian].

Koncen, P. (2011). Fanatizm. Psihoanaliz jetogo uzhasnogo javlenija – Fanaticism. Psychoanalysis of this terrible phenomenon. Har'kov : Gumanitarnyj centr [in Russian].

Kravchenko, N.I. (2018). Problema duhovnosti v social'no-istorychnomu vymiri [The problem of spirituality in the socio-historical dimension]. Suchasna nauka v merezhi Internet : materialy XIV Mizhnar. nauk.-prakt. internet-konf. – Advanced technologies of science and education : proceedings of the XIVth Intern. sci.-pract. Internet-conf. Retrieved from : http://intkonf.org/ kravchenko-ni-problema-duhovnosti-v-sotsialno-istorichnomu-vimiri/ [in Ukrainian].

Leont'ev, D.A. (2005). Duhovnost', samoreguljacija i cennosti [Spirituality, self-regulation and values]. Gumanitarnye problemy sovremennoj psihologii – Humanitarian problems of modern psychology, 7, 16-21. Retrieved from : http://institut.smysl.ru/article/spirit.php [in Russian].

Letunovskij, V.V. (2002). Psihologija duhovnogo bytija [Psychology of spiritual being]. Uchenye zapiski kafedry obshhej psihologii MGU im. M.V. Lomonosova – Scientific notes Department of General Psychology, Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov. Retrieved from : http://hpsy.ru/public/x1406.htm [in Russian].

Mjej R. (1999) Portret lichnosti [Personality portrait]. Retrieved from : http://www.gremlinmage.ru/library/may1.php [in Russian].

Nidlmen Ja. (1999). Kriticheskoe vvedenie v jekzistencial'nyj psihoanaliz [Critical introduction to existential psychoanalysis]. Binsvanger L. Bytie-v-mire. Izbrannye stat'i – Being -in-the-world. Featured Articles. (pp.11-16). Moskva : Refl-buk; Kiev: Vakler [in Russian].

Perri, Dzh. U. (2003). Duhovnyj krizis i obnovlenie [Spiritual crisis and renewal]. Grof, S., Grof, K. Duhovnyj krizis. Kogda preobrazovanie lichnosti stanovitsja krizisom – Spiritual crisis. When transformation of personality becomes a crisis. Moskva : AST. Retrieved from : http://bookap. info/trans/grof_duhovnyy_krizis_kogda_preobrazovanie_lichnosti_stanovitsya_krizisom/ [in Russian].

Savchyn, M. V. (2013). Duhovna paradygma psyhologii' [Spiritual paradigm of psychology]. Kyi'v : Akademvydav [in Ukrainian].

Simonishvili, E.N. (2008). Fenomen duhovnosti v russkoj filosofii [The phenomenon of spirituality in Russian philosophy]. Vestnik MGTU – Vestnik MGTU, Vol.11, 1, 132-137. Retrieved from : https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/fenomen-duhovnosti-v-russkoy-filosofii [in Russian].

Slobodchikov, V. I. (2004). Individual'nost' kak sposob duhovnogo bytija cheloveka [Individuality as a way of spiritual being of a person]. Novye cennosti v obrazovanii – New values in education, 2, 3-13 [in Russian].

Slobodchikov V.I. (1995). Real'nost' subjektivnogo duha [The reality of the subjective spirit]. Nachala hristianskoj psihologii – The beginnings of Christian psychology. (pp.122-138). Moskva : Nauka. Retrieved from : http://www.xpa-spb.ru/libr/Slobodchikov/realnost-duha.html [in Russian].

Frankl, V. (1990). Chelovek v poiskah smysla [Man in search of meaning]. L. Ja. Gozman & D. A. Leont'ev (Ed.) Moskva : Progress [in Russian].

Frejdzher R., Fejdimen Dzh. (2002) Abraham Maslou i transpersonal'naja psihologija [Abraham Maslow and transpersonal psychology]. Frejdzher R., Fejdimen Dzh. Lichnost': teorii, jeksperimenty, uprazhnenija – Personality: theories, experiments, exercises. (pp.482-522). Sankt-Peterburg : prajm-EVROZNAK [in Russian].

Fromm, Je. (1998). Begstvo ot svobody. Chelovek dlja sebja [Escape from freedom. Man for himself]. Minsk : OOO «Popurri» [in Russian].

Chujko G.V., & Gudyma O.V. (2019) Duhovna kryza osobystosti jak oznaka informacijnogo suspil'stva [The spiritual crisis of a personality as a sign of the information society]. S.D. Maksymenko, L.A. Onufrijeva (Eds.) Zbirnyk naukovyh prac' Kam’janec'-Podil's'kogo nacional'nogo universytetu imeni Ivana Ogijenka, Instytutu psyhologii' imeni G.S. Kostjuka NAPN Ukrai'ny – Problems of modern psychology : collection of research papers of Kamianets-Podilskyi national Ivan Ohiienko university, G.S. Kostiuk institute of psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine, 44, 322-345. DOI: 10.32626/2227-6246.2019-44.322-345 [in Ukrainian].

Chujko, G. V., Guljas I. A., & Koltunovych T. A. (2009). Ekzystencijna psyhologija [Existential psychology]. Chernivci : Prut [in Ukrainian].

Jung K. (2018) Duh i zhizn' [Spirit and life]. Jung K. Problemy dushi nashogo vremeni – The problems of the soul of our time. Sankt-Peterburg : Piter. Retrieved from : http://rumagic.com/ru_zar/sci_psychology/yung/2/j8.html [In Russian].

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright Notice

Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/