THE PSYCHOLOGICAL HELP DURING EXPERIENCING OF LOSS - CAN WE HELP PEOPLE TO EXPERIENCE THEIR GRIEF?
Larisa Rybyk
National Academy of Internal Affairs
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3280-1406
PDF 61-77 (Українська)

Keywords

grief
social support
intervention
trauma
psychological help
complicated grief

How to Cite

Rybyk, L. (2018). THE PSYCHOLOGICAL HELP DURING EXPERIENCING OF LOSS - CAN WE HELP PEOPLE TO EXPERIENCE THEIR GRIEF?. PSYCHOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 4(10), 61-77. https://doi.org/10.31108/1.2018.10.20.4

Abstract

The headnotegives reasonsfor the research actuality of problem of loss and grief experiencing, including perished law enforcement officers` wives in Ukraine, providing them with psychological advising and necessary psychological help on the basis of modern scientific heritage, world and local practical experience.

Common factors of the psychical and physical personality functioning are considered while experiencing ofsignificant person death. The special attention was attended to the researches that studied influence of significant person sudden death on the futurelife.

Scientists contend that an unexpected deathin particularis one of principal reasons of development of pathological reactions of experiencing grief that in modern scientific literature is also known as  difficult grief, traumatic grief, prolongedmourning disorder. These disorders are related to functional violations, declining living standards, and with the increase of diseases level, both psychical (depression, anxiety, deadaptationetc.) and somatic ones.

Researches of persistent complex disorders of the members of the perished servicemen`s families, conducted by the American scientists, confirm that the circumstances of death and relation in family have an influence on intensity of grief experiencing.

The researches examiningsocio-economic factors influence on grief experiencing are presented. Not only in the countries of the third world but also in the developed European countriesthe social position, a low level of education and belonging to women sex are factors influencing on forming of complicated grief.

The research aimsare study of psychotherapy features at grief experiencing on the basis of researches of scientists from different countries of the world and the parallel analysis,  what factors psychotherapy influences on and whether it is effective.

The basic part reviewed the basic theoretical and practical approaches to the near determination of psychological help.

A social help is considered as first one, most natural and accessible. It can provide a buffer effect and prevent stress factors influence on other spheres of life. However,it is necessary to take into account that significant person`s death brings both to social and to emotional loneliness. Social support diminishes the level of social loneliness, but can not influence on emotional one, which is essential in grief experiencing.

Professional, psychological help efficiency was also examined on an analysis of earlier studies.

Now in scientific society a discussionis actively conducted, concerning psychological help influence on the process of grief experiencing. Some scientists came to the conclusions, that there are no confirmations of positive results of psychotherapy. Furthermore, it is considered that psychological interference can influence on the dynamics of normal grief.

However, practically all scientists agree, that psychological help is necessarywhile experiencing of the complicated grief. It is also specified on that pathological reactions can be avoided withthe systematic psychological accompaniment.There are some contradictions that suggest an idea about positive influence of psychological accompaniment.

The researches conducted in England, Germany, Turkey, Ukraine indicate positive dynamics of influence of the programs of psychological help.

In a conclusion practicability of synthesis of social support and psychological help at significant person death is stated.

 

PDF 61-77 (Українська)

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Schut H., Stroebe M. Effects of support, counselling and therapy before and after the loss: can we really help bereaved people?Psychologica Belgica 2010, 50-1&2, 89-102.

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Fortner, B. V. (1999). The effectiveness of grief counseling and therapy: A quantitative review. Memphis, TN: University of Memphis.

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Hu XL, Li XL, Dou XM, Li R. Factors Related to Complicated Grief among Bereaved Individuals after the Wenchuan Earthquake in China. Chin Med J (Engl). 2015;128(11):1438-43. URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4733770/

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Jordan, J. R., & Neimeyer, R. A. (2003). Does grief counseling work? Death Studies, 27, 763–786; Shapiro, E. (2005). When and how do helpers harm? [Review of the book Helping the helpers not to harm: Iatrogenic damage and community mental health]. Death Studies, 29, 261–273.

de Keijser, A.J. (1997). Sociale steun en professionele begeleiding bij rouw [Social support and professional counseling for the bereaved]. Amsterdam: Thesis Publishers.

Kissane D., Sloan A. P., Family focused grief therapy – A Randomized Controlled Trial in Palliative Care and Bereavement. 5th Hong Kong Palliative Care Symposium, 2008. URL: http://www.fmshk.org/database/articles/p5p6newsletteroct08familyfocusedgrieftherapydemoral.pdf

Larson, D.G., & Hoyt, W.T. (2007). What has become of grief counseling? An evaluation of the empirical foundations of the new pessimism. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 347-355.

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Moayedoddin B., Markowitz J. Abnormal Grief: Should We Consider a More Patient-Centered Approach? American Journal of Psychotherapy , 01 Oct 2015, р 361-378.

Näppä U., Lundgren A., Axelsson B., BMC Palliative Care (2016) 15:58. URL: https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:963026/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Neimeyer, R. A. (2000). Searching for the meaning of meaning: Grief therapy and the process of reconstruction. Death Studies, 24, 541–558.

Özcan N. A. Kaya M. (2018). The Effectiveness of Family Resiliency Program with Traumatic Grief on Women’s Post-Traumatic Stress, Grief and Family Resiliency Level. TED EĞİTİM VE BİLİM. 10.15390/EB.2018.7663.

Paletti, R. (2005). Childhood bereavement intervention: A phenomenological path to resilience [Review of the book Children, bereavement and trauma: Nurturing resilience]. Death Studies, 29, 665– 680

Parkes C. M. (1970) The First Year of Bereavement, Psychiatry, 33:4, 444-467, DOI: 10.1080/00332747.1970.11023644

Rosner R, Rimane E, Vogel A, Rau J, Hagl M. Treating prolonged grief disorder with prolonged grief-specific cognitive behavioral therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2018;19(1):241. Published 2018 Apr 20. doi:10.1186/s13063-018-2618-3. URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5910599/

Sherkat, D. E., & Reed, M. D. (1992). The effects of religion and social support on selfesteem and depression among the suddenly bereaved. Social Indicators Research, 26, 259–275.

Schwartzberg, S. S., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1991). Grief and the search for meaning: Exploring the assumptive worlds of bereaved college students. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10, 270–288.

Stroebe, M., Schut, H., & Stroebe, W. (2007). Health outcomes of bereavement. Lancet, 370, 1960–1973.

Stroebe, M.S., Schut, H.A.W., & Stroebe, W. (2007). The health consequences of bereavement: A review. The Lancet, 370, 1960-1973

Stroebe, W., Stroebe, M., Abakoumkin, G., & Schut, H.A.W. (1996). The role of loneliness and social support in adjustment to loss: A test of attachment versus stress theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1241-1249.

Schut H., Stroebe M. Effects of support, counselling and therapy before and after the loss: can we really help bereaved people?Psychologica Belgica 2010, 50-1&2, 89-102.

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